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Brotherhood in the Early Madinan Society

Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid

Undoubtedly the society that was established by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in Madeenah was an example of a stable and secure society. That was manifestly apparent from the moment the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) first set foot in Madeenah and started to form the Islamic state. The security and stability of this society were due to a number of reasons and factors, including the following:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) built the mosque in Madeenah as soon as he arrived there, which helped to establish a focal point to which people could turn when calamities struck, and a place where the Muslims could gather to meet one another and find out about one another, so they could find out who was sick and go to visit them, attend the funerals of those who died, help their poor and arrange marriages for those who were single.

These are some of the ahaadeeth concerning that:

Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 51, Number 32 [ view hadeeth ]:
Narrated Anas:

When the Prophet ordered that the mosque be built, he said, "O Bani An-Najjar! Suggest to me a price for this garden of yours." They replied, "By Allah! We will demand its price from none but Allah."

It was narrated that al-Bara’ ibn ‘Aazib said: “[The verse]and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it [al-Baqarah 2:267 – interpretation of the meaning] was revealed concerning us Ansaar. We used to own date palm trees. A man would bring (the harvest) from his date palms, whether it was a little or a lot. A man would bring one or two bunches of dates and hang them in the mosque. Ahl al-Suffah – or according to a report narrated by Ibn Maajah, the poor among the Muhaajireen – had no food, so if one of them got hungry he would come and strike the bunch with his stick, and ripe and unripe dates would fall, and he would eat them. But there were some uncharitable people who would bring a bunch of dates that contained rotten or dried-up dates, or a bunch that was damaged, and hang it up. Then Allaah revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein” [al-Baqarah 2:267]

He said: "If any one of you were to be given something like they gave, he would not accept it unless he did so with his eyes closed or out of shyness. He said, after that one of us would bring the best dates that he had." Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2987; Ibn Maajah, 1822. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2389.

Secondly:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) established brotherhood between the Muhaajireen (the Emigrants who had come from Makkah) and the Ansaar (helpers, the Muslims in Madeenah). This action strengthened the bonds between the members of the Madeenan society in a manner previously unheard of. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) established bonds of brotherhood between non-Arabs and Arabs, between free men and former slaves, between people of Quraysh and members of other tribes. So the society became one entity, after which it was not surprising that an Ansaari would ask a Muhaajir to take half of his wealth, or an Ansaari would offer to divorce one of his wives so that a Muhaajir could marry her, or a Muhaajir would inherit from an Ansaari, because of the strength of the bonds between them. Then inheritance between them was abrogated by the verse on inheritance, but the Ansaar were encouraged to bequeath something to them. This was an exemplary society.

There follow some of the ahaadeeth concerning that:

Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 10 [ view hadeeth ]:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:

'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf came (from Mecca to Medina) and the Prophet made a bond of brotherhood between him and Sad bin Ar-Rabi' Al-Ansari. Al-Ansari had two wives, so he suggested that 'Abdur-Rahman take half, his wives and property. 'Abdur-Rahman replied, "May Allah bless you with your wives and property. Kindly show me the market." So 'Abdur-Rahman went to the market and gained (in bargains) some dried yoghurt and some butter. After a few days the Prophet saw Abdur-Rahman with some yellow stains on his clothes and asked him, "What is that, O 'Abdur-Rahman?" He replied, "I had married an Ansari woman." The Prophet asked, "How much Mahr did you give her?" He replied, "The weight of one (date) stone of gold." The Prophet said, "Offer a banquet, even with one sheep."

Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 37, Number 489 [ view hadeeth ]:
Narrated Said bin Jubair:

Ibn Abbas said, "In the verse: To every one We have appointed ' (Muwaliya Mawaliya means one's) heirs (4.33).' (And regarding the verse) 'And those with whom your right hands have made a pledge.' Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the emigrants came to the Prophet in Medina, the emigrant would inherit the Ansari while the latter's relatives would not inherit him because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet established between them (i.e. the emigrants and the Ansar). When the verse: 'And to everyone We have appointed heirs' (4.33) was revealed, it cancelled (the bond (the pledge) of brotherhood regarding inheritance)." Then he said, "The verse: To those also to whom your right hands have pledged, remained valid regarding co-operation and mutual advice, while the matter of inheritance was excluded and it became permissible to assign something in one's testament to the person who had the right of inheriting before.

Thirdly:

Zakaah was prescribed in the second year of the Hijrah, which made the rich and poor more equal and increased the coherence of the Madeenan society, and the bonds of brotherhood for the sake of Allaah became stronger than before. Indeed, the matter went further than zakaah to include voluntary charity.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 69, Number 515 [ view hadeeth ]:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Abu Talha had the largest number of datepalms from amongst the Ansars of Medina. The dearest of his property to him was Bairuha garden which was facing the (Prophet's) Mosque. Allah's Apostle used to enter it and drink of its good fresh water. When the Holy Verse:-- 'By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you spend (in charity) of that which you love.' (3.92) was revealed, Abu Talha got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah says: By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you spend of that which you love,' and the dearest of my property to me is the Bairuha garden and I want to give it in charity in Allah's Cause, seeking to be rewarded by Allah for that. So you can spend it, O Allah's Apostle, where-ever Allah instructs you. ' Allah's Apostle said, "Good! That is a perishable (or profitable) wealth" ('Abdullah is in doubt as to which word was used.) He said, "I have heard what you have said but in my opinion you'd better give it to your kith and kin." On that Abu Talha said, "I will do so, O Allah's Apostle!" Abu Talha distributed that garden among his kith and kin and cousins.

So the signs of harmony appeared among the Muslims in Madeenah, and the Muhaajireen recognized the rights that their Ansaar brothers had over them. There are a number of ahaadeeth concerning that, including the following:

It was narrated that Anas said: When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah, the Muhaajireen came to him and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, we have never seen any people more generous when they have the means and more helpful when they have little than the people among whom we have settled. They have looked after us and they have let us join them and share in all their happy occasions, to such an extent that we are afraid that they will take all the reward." The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Not so long as you pray for them and praise them.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2487; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2020.

Allaah created loved between the hearts of the people of Madeenah, and love for the sake of Allaah was one of the symbols of the people that Allaah enjoined upon them and made it one of the signs of perfect faith.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 2, Number 12: [ view hadeeth ]:
Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, "None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself."

Sahih Bukhari Volume 8, Book 73, Number 40 [ view hadeeth ]:
Narrated An-Nu'man bin Bashir:

Allah's Apostle said, "You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it."

 


 

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