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001  Al Fâtihah
002  Al Baqarah
003  Âl 'Imrân
004  An Nisâ'
005  Al Mâ'idah
006  Al An'âm
007  Al A'râf
008  Al Anfâl
009  At Taubah
010  Yûnus
011  Hûd
012  Yûsuf
013  Ar Ra'd
014  Ibrahîm
015  Al Hijr
016  An Nahl
017  Al Isrâ'
018  Al Kahf
019  Maryam
020  Tâ Hâ
021  Al Anbiyâ'
022  Al Hajj
023  Al Mu'minûn
024  An Nûr
025  Al Furqân
026  Ash Shu'arâ'
027  An Naml
028  Al Qasas
029  Al 'Ankabût
030  Ar Rûm
031  Luqmân
032  As Sajdah
033  Al Ahzâb
034  Saba'
035  Fâtir
036  Yâ Sîn
037  As Sâffât
038  Sâd
039  Az Zumar
040  Ghâfir
041  Fussilat
042  Ash-Shûra
043  Az Zukhruf
044  Ad Dukhân
045  Al Jâthiya
046  Al Ahqâf
047  Muhammad
048  Al Fath
049  Al Hujurât
050  Qâf
051  Az Zâriyât
052  At Tûr
053  An Najm
054  Al Qamar
055  Ar Rahmân
056  Al Wâqi'ah
057  Al Hadîd
058  Al Mujâdilah
059  Al Hashr
060  Al Mumtahinah
061  As Saff
062  Al Jumu'ah
063  Al Munafiqûn
064  At Taghâbun
065  At Talâq
066  At Tahrîm
067  Al Mulk
068  Al Qalam
069  Al Hâqqah
070  Al Ma'ârij
071  Nûh
072  Al Jinn
073  Al Muzzammil
074  Al Muddaththir
075  Al Qiyâmah
076  Al Insân
077  Al Mursalât
078  An Naba'
079  An Nazi'ât
080  'Abasa
081  At-Takwîr
082  Al Infitâr
083  Al Mutaffifîn
084  Al Inshiqâq
085  Al Burûj
086  At Târiq
087  Al A'lâ
088  Al Ghâshiyah
089  Al Fajr
090  Al Balad
091  Ash-Shams
092  Al Lail
093  Ad Duha
094  Ash Sharh
095  At Tin
096  Al 'Alaq
097  Al Qadr
098  Al Baiyinah
099  Az-Zalzalah
100  Al 'Adiyât
101  Al Qâri'ah
102  At Takâthur
103  Al 'Asr
104  Al Humazah
105  Al Fîl
106  Quraish
107  Al Mâ'ûn
108  Al Kauthar
109  Al Kâfirûn
110  An Nasr
111  Al Masad
112  Al Ikhlâs
113  Al Falaq
114  An Nâs

 

1. By the forenoon.

2. By the night when it darkens.

3. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.

4. And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present.

5. And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.

6. Did He not find you an orphan and give you a refuge?

7. And He found you unaware and guided you?

8. And He found you poor and made you rich?

9. Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.

10. And repulse not the one who asks.

11. And proclaim the grace of your Lord.

The Reason for the Revelation of Sürat Ad-Duhã

Imam Ahmad recorded from Jundub that he said, "The Prophet became ill, so he did not stand for prayer for a night or two. Then a woman came and said, ‘0 Muhammad! I think that your devil has finally left you.’ So Allah revealed,

By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you." [1]

Al-Bukhãri, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasãi, Ibn Abi Hãtim and Ibn Jarir, all recorded this Hadith. [2] This Jundub (who narrated it) is Ibn ‘Abdulläh Al-Bajali Al-’Alaqi. In a narration from Al-Aswad bin Qays, he said that he heard Jundub say that Jibril was slow in coming to the Messenger of Allah . So the idolators said, "Muhammad’s Lord has abandoned him." So Allah revealed,


By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you. [3]

 


By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens.


Al-’Awfi reported from Ibn ‘Abbas, "When the Qur’an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah , Jibril was delayed from coming to him for a number of days (on one occasion).

Therefore, the Messenger of Allah was affected by this. Then the idolaters began to say, ‘His Lord has abandoned him and hates him.’ So Allah revealed,


Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you. [4]


In this, Allah is swearing by the forenoon and the light that He has placed in it.


By the night when it darkens (Sajã).

meaning, it settles, darkens and overcomes them. This was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ibn Zayd and others. This is a clear proof of the power of the Creator of this (light) and that (darkness).

This is as Allah says,


By the night as it envelops. By the Day as it appears.
(92:1-2)

 

Allah also says,


(He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (6:96)

 

Allah then says,


[Your Lord has neither forsaken you] meaning, ‘He has not abandoned you.’


[nor hates (Qala) you]
meaning, ‘He does not hate you.’


The Hereafter is Better Than This First Life



And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present.

meaning, the abode of the Hereafter is better for you than this current abode. For this reason the Messenger of Allah used to be the most abstinent of the people concerning the worldly things, and he was the greatest of them in his disregard for worldly matters. This is well known by necessity from his biography. When the Prophet was given the choice at the end of his life between remaining in this life forever and then going to Paradise, or moving on to the company of Allah , he chose that which is with Allah over this lowly world.

Imãm Ahmad recorded that ‘Abdullãh bin Mas’ud said, “The Messenger of Allah , was lying down on a straw mat and it left marks on his side. Then when he woke up he began to rub his side. So I said, ‘O’ Messenger of Allah ! Will you allow us to spread something soft over this straw mat?’ He replied,

“I have nothing to do with this world. The parable of me and this world is like a rider who rests in the shade of a tree, then he passes on and leaves it.” [5]

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah both recorded this Hadith by way of Al-Mas’udi. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” [6]


The Numerous Bounties of the Hereafter are waiting for the Messenger of Allah

Then Allah says,


And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well pleased.

meaning, in the final abode Allah will give him until He pleases him concerning his followers, and in that which He has prepared for him from His generosity. From this will be the River of Al-Kawthar, which will have domes of hollowed pearls on its banks, and the mud on its banks will be the strongest frangrance of musk, as will be mentioned.

Imãm Abu ‘Amr Al-Awzä’i recorded that Ibn ‘Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah was shown that which his Ummah would be blessed with after him, treasure upon treasure. So he was pleased with that. Then Allah revealed,


And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well pleased.

So, Allah will give him in Paradise one million palaces, and each palace will contain whatever he wishes of wives and servants.

This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hãtim from his route of transmission. [7] This chain of narration is authentic to Ibn ‘Abbas, and statements like this can only be said from that which is Tawqif. [8]


A Mention of some of Allah’s Favors upon the Messenger

Enumerating His favors upon His Messenger Muhammad , Allah says;


Did He not find you an orphan and gave you a refuge?

This refers to the fact that his father died while his mother was still pregnant with him, and his mother, Aminah bint Wahb died when he was only six years old. After this he was under the guardianship of his grandfather, ‘Abdul-Muttalib, until he died when Muhammad was eight years old.

Then his uncle, Abu Talib took responsibility for him and continued to protect him, assist him, elevate his status, honor him, and even restrain his people from harming him when he was forty years of age and Allah commissioned him with the Prophethood. Even with this, Abu Talib continued to follow the religion of his people, worshipping idols.


All of this took place by the divine decree of Allah and His decree is most excellent. Until Abu Talib died a short time before the Hijrah. After this (Abu Talib’s death) the foolish and ignorant people of the Quraysh began to attack him, so Allah chose for him to migrate away from them to the city of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj among those who helped him (in Al-Madinah). Allah caused his Sunnah to be spread in the most perfect and complete manner. Then, when he arrived at their city, they gave him shelter, supported him, defended him and fought before him (against the enemies of Islam) — may Allah be pleased with all of them. All of this was from Allah’s protection for him, guarding over him and caring for him.

Then Allah says,


He found you unaware and guided you?

This is similar to Allah’s saying,

And thus We have sent to you an inspired book by Our command. You did not know what the Book was, nor (what) the faith (was), but We made it a light, guiding thereby whom We please of Our servants; and most surely you show the way to the right path: (42:52)

Allah says,


And He found you poor and made you rich?

meaning, ‘you were poor having dependents, so Allah made you wealthy and independent of all others besides Him.’ Thus, Allah combined for him the two positions: the one who is poor and patient, and the one who is wealthy and thankful. In the Two Sahihs it has been recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

Wealth is not determined by abundance of possessions, but wealth is the richness of the soul. [9]

In Sahih Muslim, it is recorded from ‘Abdullãh bin ‘Amr that the Messenger of Allah said, “Whoever accepts Islam, is provided with his basic needs, and Allah makes him content with what He has given him, then he will be successful.” [10]

How should this Bounty be responded to?

Then Allah says,

Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.

meaning, just as you were an orphan and Allah sheltered you, then do not oppress the orphan.’ In other words, ‘do not humiliate him, scorn him or despise him. Rather, you should be kind and gentle to him.’ Qatadah said, “Be like a merciful father to the orphan.” [11]

And repulse not the one who asks.

meaning, just as you were astray and Allah guided you, then do not scorn the one who asks for knowledge seeking to be guided.’ Ibn Ishaq said,

And repulse not the one who asks.

This means do not be oppressive, arrogant, wicked, or mean to the weak among Allah’s servants.” Qatadah said, “This means respond to the poor with mercy and gentleness.” [12]

And proclaim the grace of your Lord.

meaning, ‘just as you were poor and needy, and Allah made you wealthy, then tell about Allah’s favor upon you.’ Abu Dawud recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said, “Whosoever is not thankful to the people, then he is not thankful to Allãh .” [13]

At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith and he said, “Sahih”.[14]

Abu Dawud recorded from Jãbir that the Prophet said, “Whoever overcomes some test (i.e., calamity) and mentions it (to others), then he is indeed thankful. And whoever conceals it, then indeed he was ungrateful.” [15]

Abu Däwud was alone in recording this Hadith.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Sürat Ad-Duhã, and unto Allah is due all praise and thanks.

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[1] Ahmad 4:312.

[2] Fath Al-Bàn 3:11, and 8:580, 581, 619, and Muslim 3:1421,1422, Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 9 .272, An-Nasai in Al-Kubrd 6:517, and At-Tabari 24:485, 486.

[3] At-Tabari 24:486.

[4] At-Tabari 24:484, and Al-Qurtubi 20:91. See the beginning of this book regarding narrations from A1-’Awfi.

[5] Ahmad 1:391.

[6] Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 7:48, and Ibn Majah 2:1376.

[7] At-Tabari 24:487.

[8] Meaning information that the Prophet(SWS) informed him of.

[9] Fath Al-Bari 11:276, and Muslim 2:726 with this chain of narration and another chain as well.

[10] Muslim 2:730.

[11] A1-Qurtubi 20:100.

[12] Al-Baghawi 4:500.

[13] Abu Dawud 5:157.

[14] Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi 6:87.

[15] Abu Dawud 5:159.