001  Al Fâtihah
002  Al Baqarah
003  Âl 'Imrân
004  An Nisâ'
005  Al Mâ'idah
006  Al An'âm
007  Al A'râf
008  Al Anfâl
009  At Taubah
010  Yûnus
011  Hûd
012  Yûsuf
013  Ar Ra'd
014  Ibrahîm
015  Al Hijr
016  An Nahl
017  Al Isrâ'
018  Al Kahf
019  Maryam
020  Tâ Hâ
021  Al Anbiyâ'
022  Al Hajj
023  Al Mu'minûn
024  An Nûr
025  Al Furqân
026  Ash Shu'arâ'
027  An Naml
028  Al Qasas
029  Al 'Ankabût
030  Ar Rûm
031  Luqmân
032  As Sajdah
033  Al Ahzâb
034  Saba'
035  Fâtir
036  Yâ Sîn
037  As Sâffât
038  Sâd
039  Az Zumar
040  Ghâfir
041  Fussilat
042  Ash-Shûra
043  Az Zukhruf
044  Ad Dukhân
045  Al Jâthiya
046  Al Ahqâf
047  Muhammad
048  Al Fath
049  Al Hujurât
050  Qâf
051  Az Zâriyât
052  At Tûr
053  An Najm
054  Al Qamar
055  Ar Rahmân
056  Al Wâqi'ah
057  Al Hadîd
058  Al Mujâdilah
059  Al Hashr
060  Al Mumtahinah
061  As Saff
062  Al Jumu'ah
063  Al Munafiqûn
064  At Taghâbun
065  At Talâq
066  At Tahrîm
067  Al Mulk
068  Al Qalam
069  Al Hâqqah
070  Al Ma'ârij
071  Nûh
072  Al Jinn
073  Al Muzzammil
074  Al Muddaththir
075  Al Qiyâmah
076  Al Insân
077  Al Mursalât
078  An Naba'
079  An Nazi'ât
080  'Abasa
081  At-Takwîr
082  Al Infitâr
083  Al Mutaffifîn
084  Al Inshiqâq
085  Al Burûj
086  At Târiq
087  Al A'lâ
088  Al Ghâshiyah
089  Al Fajr
090  Al Balad
091  Ash-Shams
092  Al Lail
093  Ad Duha
094  Ash Sharh
095  At Tin
096  Al 'Alaq
097  Al Qadr
098  Al Baiyinah
099  Az-Zalzalah
100  Al 'Adiyât
101  Al Qâri'ah
102  At Takâthur
103  Al 'Asr
104  Al Humazah
105  Al Fîl
106  Quraish
107  Al Mâ'ûn
108  Al Kauthar
109  Al Kâfirûn
110  An Nasr
111  Al Masad
112  Al Ikhlâs
113  Al Falaq
114  An Nâs

 

Explanation of Surah al-Ikhlaas - The Chapter of Purity
by Shaykh-ul-Islam Taqi ad-Deen Ibn Taymiyyah

Born 1263 C. E. / 661 A. H., Died 1328 C. E. / 728 A. H.


The Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah (i.e. the Sunnis) do not deviate from those things which have been brought by the Messengers, for that is the Straight Path, the path of those whom God has bestowed His favour upon from among the Prophets, the Truthful, the Martyrs and the Righteous. It is in this collection of what has been described about Almighty God by Himself in Surah al-Ikhlaas (literally: "The Chapter of Purity") that makes it equal to one third of the Qur'an. In this surah, Almighty God has said:


"Say! He is God, the One!
The Eternally Besought of all!
He does not beget, nor is He begotten.
And there is nothing comparable to Him."


1. Whatever the Messenger of God, may the peace and blessings of God be upon him, brought with him, that alone is real. It is obligatory to obey it and forbidden to deviate from it as this alone is the Straight Path which has no curves.

2. The Straight Path is only one and whoever deviates from it he strays onto the wrong path, innovation and injustice. Almighty God commands (in the Qur'an):


"And this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow the other paths lest they divert you from His way.

3. The Straight Path is that path of the Ummah (community of Muslim believers) which lies in between the two extremes. Hence, the supplication in every rak'ah (i.e. unit) of the prayer: "Guide us to the Straight Path", that He should help, assist, guide, support and lead us in those things which will help us to obey Him and keep us steadfast on His Path. This is the Path of those who were favoured by God: the Prophets, the Truthful, the Martyrs and the Righteous, and these are the best for keeping company.

4. The Concept of Tawheed has been explained in Surah al-Ikhlaas by separating and purging it from Shirk (associating others with Almighty God, polytheism and idolatry).

5. Imam Ahmad's narration of 'Ubayy bin Ka'ab that the mushrikoon (i.e. pagan idolaters) asked: "Oh Muhammed! Tell us the geneology of Your Lordl", whereupon God revealed this surah.

6. From authentic hadiths, it is proven that this surah is equal to one third of the of the Qur'an. The substance of the statement of Ibn 'Abbaas (a Companion of the Prophet) is as follows: that the Qur'an consists of three fundamental objectives:


a) Those commands and prohibitions which contain the laws and practical ways. These form the subject matter of the science of Fiqh (jurisprudence) and Ethics.

b) The tales and narratives which include the stories of the Prophets and Messengers of God and their communities. The punishments and disasters which befell those who resisted and denied the Messengers of God. Also, the promises, rewards, warnings and dooms.

c) The knowledge of Tawheed (the Unity of God) and the description of those matters which relate to the Names of Almighty God and His Attributes, which to have faith in is obligatory upon the servant of God (i.e. each Muslim). This has precedence over the first three.

7. Surah al-Ikhlaas contains the third objective and a general description of it. Thus, it is correct to say that this surah is equal to one third of the Qur'an.

8. The answer to the question that how does this surah contain comprehensively the knowledge of Tawheed and its principles which form the essence of the belief in Almighty God. God's command "He is God, the One" negates partnership with Him in every sense, whether it concerns His Self, Attributes or His Deeds. It also demonstrates the distinctiveness of God in His perfection, magnificence and majesty. The word Ahad is not used in affirmation for anyone besides God, since Ahad is more emphatic than Wahid.

9. The Tafseer (commentary, exegis) of Ibn 'Abbaas for the verse "God! al-Samad (i.e. the Eternally Besought of all).": The Chief who is best in His Nobility. The Great one who is best in His greatness. The Tolerant One who is best in His toleration. The Omnipotent who is the best in His omnipotence, the All Knowing who is best in His knowledge. The Self which is perfect in all types of nobility and greatness - that Self is only God - the Most Revered and the Most Powerful. He alone has these qualities for they do not apply to anyone save Him. No one is equal to Him and no one is like Him.

10. The Tafseer is also as follows: The Self who has no fear, around whom all creatures turn and Whom they seek after for all their needs and actions.

11. Affirmation in the Oneness negates all forms of polytheism and similitude. Affirmation of all the meanings of al-Samad includes all the noble Names and the most exalted Attributes. This is the Tawheed of Affirmation.

12. The Tawheed of Purity is in the statement: "He does not beget not nor is He begotten. And there is none comparable to Him". This statement can also be understood from the general statement: "Say! He is God! The One". Nothing came out of Him nor did He come out of anything. He has no equal, no likeness and no similarity.

13. Domination of of the concept of Tawheed in this surah. The afffirmation of Oneness for the Lord in total and absolute contradiction to all forms of Polytheism. His character of being "Eternally Besought of all", which proves all His Attributes, that He cannot suffer from any defect, negation of father and son which is an implication of Him being in no need and that all is in need of Him. All is characterised in the statement of His being besought and His Oneness. Negation of an equal which includes negation of similarity, resemblances and likeness. This surah includes all of these matters and is therefore rightly deserving of being called equal to a third of the Qur'an.