001  Al Fâtihah
002  Al Baqarah
003  Âl 'Imrân
004  An Nisâ'
005  Al Mâ'idah
006  Al An'âm
007  Al A'râf
008  Al Anfâl
009  At Taubah
010  Yûnus
011  Hûd
012  Yûsuf
013  Ar Ra'd
014  Ibrahîm
015  Al Hijr
016  An Nahl
017  Al Isrâ'
018  Al Kahf
019  Maryam
020  Tâ Hâ
021  Al Anbiyâ'
022  Al Hajj
023  Al Mu'minûn
024  An Nûr
025  Al Furqân
026  Ash Shu'arâ'
027  An Naml
028  Al Qasas
029  Al 'Ankabût
030  Ar Rûm
031  Luqmân
032  As Sajdah
033  Al Ahzâb
034  Saba'
035  Fâtir
036  Yâ Sîn
037  As Sâffât
038  Sâd
039  Az Zumar
040  Ghâfir
041  Fussilat
042  Ash-Shûra
043  Az Zukhruf
044  Ad Dukhân
045  Al Jâthiya
046  Al Ahqâf
047  Muhammad
048  Al Fath
049  Al Hujurât
050  Qâf
051  Az Zâriyât
052  At Tûr
053  An Najm
054  Al Qamar
055  Ar Rahmân
056  Al Wâqi'ah
057  Al Hadîd
058  Al Mujâdilah
059  Al Hashr
060  Al Mumtahinah
061  As Saff
062  Al Jumu'ah
063  Al Munafiqûn
064  At Taghâbun
065  At Talâq
066  At Tahrîm
067  Al Mulk
068  Al Qalam
069  Al Hâqqah
070  Al Ma'ârij
071  Nûh
072  Al Jinn
073  Al Muzzammil
074  Al Muddaththir
075  Al Qiyâmah
076  Al Insân
077  Al Mursalât
078  An Naba'
079  An Nazi'ât
080  'Abasa
081  At-Takwîr
082  Al Infitâr
083  Al Mutaffifîn
084  Al Inshiqâq
085  Al Burûj
086  At Târiq
087  Al A'lâ
088  Al Ghâshiyah
089  Al Fajr
090  Al Balad
091  Ash-Shams
092  Al Lail
093  Ad Duha
094  Ash Sharh
095  At Tin
096  Al 'Alaq
097  Al Qadr
098  Al Baiyinah
099  Az-Zalzalah
100  Al 'Adiyât
101  Al Qâri'ah
102  At Takâthur
103  Al 'Asr
104  Al Humazah
105  Al Fîl
106  Quraish
107  Al Mâ'ûn
108  Al Kauthar
109  Al Kâfirûn
110  An Nasr
111  Al Masad
112  Al Ikhlâs
113  Al Falaq
114  An Nâs

 

Tafseer of the Salaf
Imam Ibn Taymiyyah

An Introduction to the Principles of Tafseer © 1993 Al-Hidaayah


The first thing to know is that the Prophet, peace be upon him, has explained the meaning of the Qur'aan to his companions, just as he taught its words. The Divine command: "You should explain to people what has been sent down to them," [16:44] calls for the former just as it calls for the latter. Abu `Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulamee has said that whenever the people who taught them the Qur'aan like `Uthmaan ibn Affaan (radiyallaahu `anhu), `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood (radiyallaahu `anhumaa) and others learned then verses of the Qur'aan from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) and did not proceed further unless they had understood whatever ideas and regulations those verses contained. They used to say: "We learned the text of the Qur'aan and studied its ideas and injunctions all together." This explains why they spent such a long time in learning a chapter (soorah). Anas (radiyallaahu `anhu) has said: "We used to hold in great esteem the one who learned the two soorahs of the Qur'aan: al-Baqarah and Aali-Imraan". Ibn `Umar (radiyallaahu `anhu) spent many years, and according to Maalik, a complete eight years, in learning these soorahs. In fact, the companions were submitting to the command of Allaah:

"This is a blessed Book; We have revealed it to you so that you contemplate over it," [38:29] and

"Don't they contemplate over the Qur'aan!", [47:24] and,

"Have they not pondered over (Allaah's) words!". [23:68]

Obviously, you cannot contemplate words unless you understand their meaning. That is why Allaah has said:

"We have revealed it as an Arabic Qur'aan so that you comprehend it", [12:22]

and to comprehend the Qur'aan means to understand its meaning.

Everyone knows that a book is meant for understanding, not just for reading. This is all the more true of the Qur'aan. No one ever reads a book on a subject: medicine, mathematics or any other, without trying to understand it. The same is true of the Qur'aan, on which rests our well-being and happiness, our religion and life. This is why the companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) differed little in their exegesis of the Qur'aan. Their successors (al-Tabi'een) have differed comparatively more; however their differences, as compared to those of the latter generations, are negligible. As a rule, the better a generation, the more profound is its understanding and knowledge of the Qur'aan, and the greater is the agreement of its scholars on its exegesis. Among the successors there were many who studied the whole Qur'aan with the companions. For instance, Mujaahid studied the entire Qur'aan, as he has himself said, with Ibn `Abbaas (radiyallaahu `anhuma), he questioned him about each and every verse, and noted all his comments. That is why al-Thawree has said: "If you get the comments of Mujaahid it is enough." This also explains why al-Shaafi`ee, al-Bukhaaree and various other scholars, as well as Imaam Ahmad and others who have commented on the Qur'aan quote the words of Mujaahid more than the words of any one else. The point I am stressing is that the successors learned the exegesis (tafseer) of the Qur'aan from the companions as they learned the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) from them. This is not at all to deny that they exercised their minds on different verses and expressed their opinions, as they did with regard to various ahaadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam).