Fiqh 1.1: Purification
The shari'ah has divided water into four kinds:
1 mutlaq water,
2 used water (for purification),
3 water mixed with pure elements and
4 water mixed with impure elements. We shall discuss
each of them separately.
Fiqh 1.1 a: Mutlaq water
This kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent
purity and as such, it can be used by an individual to purify him or herself.
It consists of the following categories:
Fiqh 1.1 b: Rain water, snow, and hail
These substances are pure because Allah says so: "And
sent down water from the sky upon you, that thereby He might purify you..."
(al-Anfal 1), and "We send down purifying water from the sky"
(al-Furqan 48). This is also supported by the following hadith: Abu Hurairah
reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, used to be silent
between the (opening) takbir of the prayer and the verbal Qur'anic recitation.
Abu Hurairah asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, may my father and
mother be sacrificed for you, why do you remain silent between the takbir
and the recital? What do you say (silently during that time)?" He
said, "I say, 'O Allah, make a distance between me and my sins similar
to the distance you have made between the East and the West. O Allah,
cleanse me of my sins in the manner that a white garment (is cleansed)
from dirt. O Allah, wash my sins from me with snow, water, and hail."'
This hadith is related by the "group", except for at-Tirmizhi.
Fiqh 1.2: Sea water
Sea water's purity is based on the following hadith: Abu
Hurairah related that a man asked the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
peace, "O Messenger of Allah, we sail on the ocean and we carry only
a little water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go thirsty.
May we use sea water for ablution?" Said the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, "Its (the sea) water is pure and its dead (animals)
are lawful (i.e., they can be eaten without any prescribed slaughtering)."
This hadith is related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi calls it hassan
sahih, and al-Bukhari says it is sahih.
Fiqh 1.2 a: Water from the well of Zamzam
'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
peace, called for a bucket that contained water from the well of Zamzam.
He drank from the bucket, then made ablution (with its water). This hadith
is related by Ahmad.
Fiqh 1.2 b: Altered water
This involves water whose form has been altered because
of its being in a place for a long period of time, or because of the place
in which it is located, or because of its being mixed with a substance
that cannot be completely removed from it (i.e., water mixed with algae,
tree leaves, and so on). The scholars agree that this type of water falls
under the heading of mutlaq water.
The rationale is simple: everything that falls under the
general term of water, without any further qualifications, is considered
pure, for the Qur'an says, "...and if you find not water, then go
to clean, high ground..." (al-Ma'idah 6).
Fiqh 1.2 c: Used water
This category refers to water which drips from the person
after he performs ablution or ghusl. It is considered pure because it
was pure before its use for ablution, and there is no basis to think that
it has lost its purity. This statement is supported by the hadith of Rab'i
bint Mu'wazh which describes the ablution of the Messenger of Allah. She
states, "He wiped his head with (the water) remaining on his hands
from his ablution." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.
Abu Dawud's version is, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
wiped his head with the extra water that was in his hand." Abu Hurairah
also reported that the Messenger of Allah met him alone in the streets
of Madinah while he was in post-sex impurity. He therefore slipped away,
made ghusl and returned. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, asked
him "Where have you been, Abu Hurairah?" He answered, "I
was in post-sex impurity and did not want to sit with you while I was
in that condition." The Prophet replied, "Glory be to Allah.
The believer does not become impure." This is related by "the
This is based on the rationale that since a believer never
becomes impure, the water he uses for purification also does not become
impure. Thus, a pure object touching a pure object cannot result in one's
becoming impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said that it is related that 'Ali, Ibn
'Umar, Abu Umamah, 'Ata, al-Hassan, Makhul and anNakha'i said that if
a person forgot to wipe his head while making ablution, it is sufficient
for him to wipe his head with any water remaining in his beard. Ibn al-Munzhir
stated that this proves that they took "used water" as pure.
This opinion comes from one of the narrations attributed to Malik and
ash-Shaf'i. Ibn Hazm ascribes it to Sufyan al-Thauri, Abu Thaur, and all
scholars of the Zhahiri school of thought.
Fiqh 1.3: Water mixed with pure elements
This category includes water that has been mixed with substances
like soap, saffron, flowers, and so on, that is, objects considered pure
by the shari'ah. Such water is considered pure as long as it has not been
so mixed with other substances that one can no longer call it water. If
this is the case, the water is still considered pure, but it cannot be
used for purification. Umm 'Atiyah narrated that the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, entered her house after the death of his daughter
Zainab and said, "Wash her three or five or more times--if you see
fit to do so--with water and dry tree leaves. For the final washing, use
some kafoor or something from kafoor. When you are finished, inform me."
She did so, after which he gave the women his outer garment and told them
to wrap Zainab in it. This was related by "the group."
The deceased should be washed with something that may purify
a live person. Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Khuzaimah record from Umm Hani
that the Messenager of Allah and Maimunah washed themselves from one (water)
container that had a trace of dough in it. In both of these hadith, we
find that the water was mixed with another substance, but since the other
substance was not substantial enough to alter its nature, it remained
fit for consumption.
Fiqh 1.3 a: Water mixed with impure elements
We can divide this category into two sub-categories:
1 The impure substance alters the taste, color or
odor of the water. In this case, it can not be used for purification.
According to Ibn al-Munzhir and Ibn al-Mulaqqin, there is a consensus
on this point.
2 The liquid is still considered water, meaning that
the impure substance has not altered its taste, color or odor. Such water
is considered pure and may be used for purification. This is based upon
the following hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that a bedouin urinated in
the mosque. The people stood to get him (and stop him). The Prophet said,
"Leave him and pour a bucket of water or a container of water over
his urine. You have been raised to be easy on the people, not to be hard
on them." This hadith is narrated by "the group," except
Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri asked the Prophet, "Can we make
ablution from the well of Buda'ah (i.e., a well in Madinah)?" The
Prophet, upon whom be peace, told him, "Water is pure and nothing
makes it impure."
This hadith is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, Abu Dawud,
anNasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who classified it as hassan. Ahmad said, "This
hadith is sahih and Yahya ibn Ma'een and Muhammad ibn Hazm classified
it as such." This is also the opinion of Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah,
al-Hassan al-Basri, Ibn al-Musayyab, 'Ikrimah, Ibn Abu Laila, al-Thauri,
Dawud azh-Zhahiri, an-Nakha'i, Malik and others. Says al-Ghazzali, "I
wish ash-Shaf'i's opinion was like Malik's."
There is also a hadith from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar in which
the Messenger of Allah is reported to have said, "If there are at
least two buckets of water, it will not carry any impurity." This
hadith is related by the "five." However, this hadith is muzhtarab
in its chain of narrators and text. Ibn 'Abdul-Barr said in at-Tamheed,
"As to the opinion of ash-Shaf'i which is based on this hadith, it
is weak on scrutiny and is not confirmed by historical reports."
Fiqh 1.4: Leftover water
"Leftover water" is what remains in a pot after
some has been drunk. There are five different types of leftover water.
Fiqh 1.4 a: Water leftover after people have drunk from
According to the shari'ah, such water is considered pure
regardless of whether the one who drank from the pot was a Muslim, an
unbeliever, a person in post-sex impurity or a menstruating woman.
Although Allah says in the Qur'an, "Verily, the idol
worshippers are impure" (at-Taubah) this is a reference not to their
physical state, but to their false beliefs and creed. They may come into
contact with dirt or impurities, but this does not mean that their possessions
or bodies are impure. In fact, they used to mix with the Muslims. Their
emmissaries and delegations used to visit the Messenger of Allah and enter
his mosque. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not order that the objects
they touched be cleansed. As for mensturating women, 'Aishah said, "I
used to drink (from a container) while I was menstruating. I would then
pass it to the Messenger of Allah and he would drink from the same spot
where I had put my lips." (Related by Muslim.)
Fiqh 1.5: Water left in a container after an allowable
animal has drunk from it
Such water is considered pure. Since the animal qualifies
for consumption, its saliva is also pure. Abu Bakr ibn al-Munzhir said,
"The scholars are agreed that such water is permissible to drink
or use for ablution."
Fiqh 1.5 a: Water remaining in a pot after it has been
drunk by a donkey, mule, beasts of birds of prey
Such water is also considered pure, based on the hadith
of Jabir in which the Messenger of Allah was asked about making ablution
with drinking water left by donkeys. The Prophet, upon whom be peace,
answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any of the beasts
of prey." This hadith was related by ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and
al-Baihaqi who said, "When its different chains are put together
they become strong." It has also been related from Ibn 'Umar that
the Messenger of Allah went out at night while he was on a journey. He
passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said 'Umar, "Did a beast
of prey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told
him, "O owner of the pond, do not inform him. It is not necessary,
for him (the beast of prey) is what he carried in his stomach and for
us is what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying."
This is related by ad-Daraqutni. Yahya ibn Sa'eed reported that once 'Umar
was among a group that included 'Amr ibn al-'Aas and, when they came upon
a pond, 'Amr said, "O owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey
discovered your pond?" 'Umar said, "Do not inform us, since
the people drink after the wild beasts and the wild beasts after the people."
This is related by Malik in al-Muwatta.
Fiqh 1.6: Water left in a pot after a cat has drunk from
Such water is also considered pure. This is proven by the
hadith of Kabshah bint Ka'b who, when she was under the care of Abu Qatadah,
entered the room to pour some water for him. A cat came, drank some of
the water, and Qatadah proceeded to tilt the container so the cat could
drink more. Kabshah said, "He noticed that I was watching him."
He asked, "Are you surprised, O niece?" I answered, "Yes."
He said, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, 'It (the
cat) is not impure. They intermingle with you."'
Fiqh 1.6 a: Water left in a pot after a pig or dog has
drunk from it
Such water is considered impure and must be avoided. Al-Bukhari
and Muslim have recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that the messenger
of Allah said, "If a dog drinks from one of your containers, wash
it seven times." Ahmad and Muslim also have this addition, "Cleanse
one of your containers if a dog licks it by washing it seven times, the
first washing being with dirt." As for the leftover water of a pig,
it is clearly considered filth and impure.
Fiqh 1.6 b: Types of impurities
Najasah refers to impure substances that the Muslim must
avoid and wash off if they should happen to contaminate his clothes, body
and so on. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "Purify your raiment" (alMudathar
4); and, "Allah loves those who repent and who purify themselves"
(al-Baqarah 222). The Messenger of Allah also said, "Purity is half
of the faith."
Fiqh 1.6 c: Dead animals
This refers to animals which die from "natural causes,"
that is, without the proper Islamic way of slaughtering. It also includes
anything that is cut off of a live animal. Abu Waqid al-Laithy reported
that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "What is cut off of a
live animal is considered dead," i.e., it is considered like an animal
that has not been properly slaughtered. This is related by Abu Dawud and
by at-Tirmizhi, who classifies it as hassan and says that the scholars
act according to this hadith.
Fiqh 1.7: Dead animals of the sea and dead locusts
Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Two
types of dead animals and two types of blood have been made lawful for
us. The types of dead animals are seafood and locusts. The two types of
blood are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."
This is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi and adDaraqutni.
The hadith is weak, but Imam Ahmad says that it is authentic in mauqoof
form. Abu Zar'ah and Abu Hatim have said the same. Such a report has the
implication of a marfu' hadith because a companion saying, "This
was allowed for us" or "This was forbidden for us" is like
one of them saying, "We were ordered to do this," or "We
were forbidden to do this," and so on. (Such statements are considered
marfu' with respect to their regulations). And we have already mentioned
the Prophet's statement concerning the ocean, "Its water is pure
and its 'dead animals' are allowable (to eat.)."
Fiqh 1.7 a: Dead animals that have no running blood
(That is) bees, ants, and so on. They are considered pure.
If they fall into some substance and die, the substance will not become
impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said, "I do not know of any disagreement concerning
the purity of such water save what has been related from ash-Shaf'i. It
is well-known that he views them as being impure. Nevertheless, it does
not bother him if the object falling into a substance does not alter it
(in any way)."
Fiqh 1.7 b: Bones, horns, claws, fur, feathers, and skin
and so on of dead animals
All of these are considered pure. Concerning the bones of
dead animals, az-Zuhri said, "I have met some scholars of the preceeding
generations who used such objects for combs and pots for oil, and they
did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Said Ibn 'Abbas, "The client of Maimunah was given a sheep as charity,
and it died. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by it
and said, 'Why do you not remove its skin, treat it and put it to use?'
She said, 'It is dead' (i.e., it has not been slaughtered properly). He
said to her, 'Only eating it is forbidden."' This is related by the
group. Ibn Majah attributes the incident to Maimunah and her client. Al-Bukhari
and an-Nasa'i do not mention treating the skin. It is reported from Ibn
'Abbas that he recited: "Say (O Muhammad): "In all that has
been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat; if one wants
to eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or swine
flesh..." (al-An'am 145). Then he said, "What is forbidden is
its meat. As for its skin, skin used for waterskins, teeth, bones, fur
and wool, they are permissible." This is narrated by Ibn Munzhir
and Ibn Hatim. Similarly, its rennet and milk are considered pure. This
is supported by the fact that when the companions conquered Iraq, they
ate the cheese of the Magians which was made from rennet, although their
slaughtered animals were considered the same as 'dead animals.' It is
confirmed from Salman al-Farsi that when he was asked about cheese, clarified
butter and pelts, he said, "What is permissible is what Allah made
permissible in His book. What is forbidden is what Allah made forbidden
in His book. What he omits, He has pardoned for you." It is well-known
that he was being asked about the cheese of the Magians, as Salman was
'Umar's deputy in Mada'in, Iraq.
Fiqh 1.8: Blood
This includes blood that pours forth from an animal's body,
such as blood from a slaughtered animal, or from menstruation, except
for what small amounts are overlooked. Ibn Juraij said about the Qur'anic
verse "...or blood poured forth..." (al-An'am 145), that this
is the blood that flows out. The blood that does not flow out, but remains
in the veins, is permissible. This is related by Ibn al-Munzhir. And it
is also related from Abu Majlizn in his discourse on blood that he was
asked, "What about the blood that remains in the slaughtered sheep
or at the top of the cooking pot?" He answered, "There is no
problem with it. What is forbidden is the blood that flows out (of the
animal at the time of slaughtering)." This was recorded by 'Abd ibn
Hameed and by Abu ash-Shaikh. It is also related from 'Aishah that she
said, "We used to eat the meat when the blood was streaking the pot."
Al-Hassan said, "The Muslims always prayed, even while they were
bleeding." This was mentioned by al-Bukhari. It is confirmed that
'Umar prayed while his wound was bleeding. Elucidating the point, Ibn
Hajr says in Fath al-Bari (a commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari): "Abu
Hurairah did not see anything wrong in a drop or two of blood during the
prayers. Based on this report from Abu Hurairah, the blood of a flee or
the blood that comes from a pimple are to be overlooked. Abu Majlizn was
asked about pus that gets on the body or the clothes. He said, 'There
is nothing wrong with them. Allah mentions only the blood, not the pus."'
Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It
is obligatory to clean the clothes from pus, purulent matter or similar
fluids." He also says, "There is no proof concerning its impurity."
It is preferred for the person to avoid contact as much as possible with
Fiqh 1.9: Pig's meat
According to the verse (al-An'am 145) quoted earlier, items
mentioned therein are impure. The pronoun 'they' refers to all three of
the mentioned items. It is, however, allowed to knit with the hair of
a pig according to most of the scholars.
Fiqh 1.9 a: Vomiting of a person, urine, and excrement
There is agreement among the scholars that these objects
are impure. But, a slight amount of vomit (commonly understood as a small
amount of liquid) and the urine of an unweaned male baby are overlooked
and pardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water over the urine of
an unweaned male baby. This is based on the hadith of Umm Qais. She came
to the Messenger of Allah with her unweaned son. After a while, the baby
urinated in the Prophet's lap. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, called
for some water, which he sprinkled over his clothes, and did not give
them a complete washing. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, "The
urine of a baby boy should have water sprinkled upon it. The urine of
a baby girl is to be washed off." Says Qatadah, "This refers
to a male baby that has not yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then
the garment is to be washed."
This hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi
and Ibn Majah. In al-Fath, Ibn Hajr says its chain is sahih.
Sprinkling is sufficient as long as the boy is still nursing.
If he eats solid food, his urine must be washed from the clothes and body.
There is no disagreement on this latter point. Perhaps the reason for
this exemption to the male baby's urine is that people have a tendency
to carry their male babies around, and it would have been difficult to
clean the clothes after their frequent urinations.
Fiqh 1.10: Al-Wadi
Wadi is a thick white secretion discharged (by some people)
after urination. It is considered impure. 'Aishah said, " Wadi comes
out after urination. The person should wash the private parts and perform
ablution. It is not necessary to perform ghusl. This is related by Ibn
al-Munzhir. Ibn 'Abbas related that "mani (sperm) requires ghusl.
As for mazhi (semen) and wadi they require a complete purification."
This is related by al-Athram. Al-Baihaqi has it with the wording, "Concerning
mazhi (prostatic fluid) and wadi, he said, 'Wash your sexual organs and
perform the same type of ablution as you perform for prayer."'
Fiqh 1.10 a: Al-Mazhi or prostatic fluid
This is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual
organs because of thinking about sexual intercourse or foreplay, and so
on. The person is usually not aware of when exactly it is secreted. It
comes from both the male and the female sexual organs, although the amount
from the latter is usually more than the former's. Scholars are agreed
that it is impure. If it gets on the body, it is obligatory to wash it
off. If it gets on the clothes, it suffices to sprinkle the area with
water, as it is very hard to be completely protected from this impurity,
especially for the young, single person. 'Ali said, "I used to excrete
mazhi, so I asked a man to ask the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
about it. I was shy to do so because of my position with respect to his
daughter ('Ali was the Prophet's son-in-law). He said, 'Make ablution
and wash your penis." This is related by al-Bukhari and others. Sahl
ibn Hanif said, "I used to suffer from excessive amounts of mazhi.
I used to make lots of ghusl because of it. So I mentioned this to the
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he said, 'It is sufficient
to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over your clothes wherever
the fluid appears."
The hadith is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi.
The latter says, "The hadith is hassan sahih. In the chain is Muhammad
ibn Ishaq, who is considered weak when he relates in mu'an'an (handed-down)
form because of his reputation as one who commited tadlis. But in this
narration, he makes it clear that he heard the hadith directly."
Al-Athram narrated the same hadith with the wording, "I was bothered
by a great deal of mazhi, so I went to the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
and informed him of this. He said 'It is sufficient for you to take a
handful of water and sprinkle it over (the mazhi)."'
Fiqh 1.11: Sperm, Al-Mani
Some scholars say that sperm is impure, but apparently it
is pure, for it is only recommended to wash it off if it is still wet,
and to scratch it off if it is dry. Said 'Aishah, "I used to scratch
the sperm off the Messenger of Allah's clothes if it was dry, and wash
it off if it was still wet." (This is related by ad-Daraqutni, Abu
'Awanah and al-Bazzar). It is also related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I
asked the Messenger of Allah about sperm on clothes. He said, 'It is the
same as mucus and spittle. It is sufficient to rub the area with a rag
The hadith was related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and atTahawi.
There is a difference in the narration over whether it should be in marfu'or
Fiqh 1.11 a: The urine and stools of animals that are permissible
Both of these are considered impure. Ibn Mas'ud related
that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, went to answer the call
of nature. He asked 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to bring three stones. 'Abdullah
said, "I could not find three stones, so I found two stones and animal
dung and brought them to him. He took the two stones and threw away the
dung saying, 'It is impure."'
The hadith is related by al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah, and Ibn
Khuzaimah. In one narration it states, "It is impure. It is the stool
of a donkey." A little amount of it is pardoned though, as it is
very difficult to completely protect one's self from it. Al-Waleed ibn
Muslim says, "I said to al-Auza'i, 'What about the urine of animals
whose meat is not eaten, like the mule, donkey and horse?' He said that
they used to come into contact with these during their battles, and that
they did not wash it off their bodies or clothes. As for the urine and
stools of animals whose meat is permissible, Malik, Ahmad and a group
of the Shaifiyyah says that it is pure. Commenting on the subject, Ibn
Taimiyyah says, "None of the companions held that it is impure. In
fact, the statement that it is impure is of recent origin and not from
the early generations of the companions."
Said Anas, "A group of people from the tribes of Ukul
or 'Uraina came to Madinah and became ill in their stomach. The Prophet
ordered them to get a milking she-camel and drink a mixture of its milk
and urine." This hadith is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim
and points to a camel's urine as being pure. Therefore, by analogy, other
permissible animals' urine may also be considered pure. Says Ibn al-Munzhir,
"Those who claim that that was permissible only for those people
are incorrect. Specification is only confirmed by some specific proof."
He also says, "The scholars permit, without any objection, the sale
of sheep's stools and the use of camel's urine in their medicine, both
in the past and in the present, again without any objection. This shows
that they are considered pure." Says ash-Shaukani, "Apparently,
the urine and stools of every living animal permissible to eat is pure."
There is nothing to prove otherwise.
Fiqh 1.12: Jallalah
Jallalah refers to an animal that eats the waste or flesh
of other animals, such as camels, cows, sheep, chickens, geese, and so
on. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah forbade the drinking
of such animals' milk.
This hadith is related by "the five," except for
Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi grades it as sahih. In one narration it states,
"It is also prohibited to ride upon a jallalah. (Related by Abu Dawud.)
'Amr ibn Shu'aib related on the authority of his father, from his grandfather,
that the Messenger of Allah prohibited the meat of domestic donkeys. As
for the jallalah, he prohibited riding or eating them." (Related
by Ahamad, an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) If the jallalah animal is kept away
from the other animals for some time and is given clean food to eat, then
it becomes pure and is no longer called jallalah. If this is the case,
it becomes permissible to eat, as the reason for its prohibition was the
change it underwent due to eating filth, a state which would no longer
Fiqh 1.12 a: Alcohol
According to most scholars, alcohol is impure. Says Allah
in the Qur'an, "Alcohol, games of chance, idols and divining arrows
are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork." Some scholars say that
it is pure, for they take the meaning of rajis in its abstract sense as
describing alcohol and whatever is related to it. This is not labeled
as impure in a definite, sensory way. Says Allah, "Stay away from
the impurities of idols." Idols are impure in the abstract sense,
and they are considered impure if one touches them. The explanation of
the preceding verse is that they are a tool of Satan, for they cause enmity
and hatred and keep people away from the remembrance of Allah and pra.yer.
In Subul as-Salaam it says, "Their origin is pure and their being
prohibited does not mean that the object itself is impure. For example,
hashish is prohibited but it is pure. But, something impure is not necessarily
prohibited. Every impure thing is prohibited, but not vice-versa. That
is because of the ruling that something impure cannot be touched under
any circumstances. If a ruling says that something is impure, it is also
prohibited. This differs from a ruling that something is prohibited. For
example, it is forbidden to wear silk and gold, but they are absolutely
pure by consensus." If one understands that, then the prohibition
of alcohol does not necessarily entail its also being considered impure:
it needs some other evidence to prove that it is impure. If not, then
we are left with the original position that it is pure. If one claims
other than that, he must substantiate it.
Fiqh 1.13: Purifying the body and clothes
If the clothes or body are contaminated with impurities,
it is obligatory to wash them with water until they are cleansed of the
impurities. This is especially the case if the impurity is visible, such
as blood. If there are some stains that remain after washing which would
be extremely difficult to remove, they can be overlooked. If the impurity
is not visible, such as urine, it is sufficient to wash it one time. 'Asma
bint Abu Bakr related that a woman came to the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
and said, "Our clothes are contaminated with menstrual blood. What
should we do about this?" He said, "Scrape it, rub it with water,
pour water over it and then pray in it." (This is related by al-Bukhari
and Muslim) If impurities get on the lower portion of a woman's dress,
it is purified by dust as she trails along. A woman said to Umm Salamah,
"I have a long dress that drags on the ground, even when I walk through
places that contain filth. What should I do about it?" Umm Salamah
answered her, "The Messenger of Allah said, 'What comes after it
purifies it."' This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.
Fiqh 1.13 a: Dogs
Dogs are considered impure. Any container that a dog has
licked must be washed seven times, the first time with dirt. Abu Hurairah
reported that the Messenager of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Purifying
a container that a dog has licked is done by washing it seven times, the
first washing being with dirt (that is, water mixed with dirt until it
becomes muddy)." This was related by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and
al-Baihaqi. If a dog licks a pot that has dry food in it, what it touched
and what surrounds it must be thrown away. The remainder may be kept,
as it is still pure. As for a dog's fur, it is considered pure.
Fiqh 1.14: Purifying the ground
If there are impurities on the ground, it is purified by
pouring water over it. This is proven by Abu Hurairah's hadith, mentioned
earlier, about the bedouin who urinated in the mosque. The Prophet, upon
whom be peace, said all that needed to be done for purification was to
pour water over it. Said Abu Qulabah, "The drying of the ground is
its purification." 'Aishah said, "The purification of the ground
is its becoming dry." (Related by Ibn Abi Shaibah.) This, of course,
refers to the case where the impurity is a liquid. If the impurity is
a solid, the ground will only become pure by its removal or decay.
Fiqh 1.14 a: Purifying clarified butter and other similar
Ibn 'Abbas relates from Maimunah that the Prophet, upon
whom be peace, was asked about a mouse that fell into a pot of clarified
butter. He said, "Take (the mouse) and what is around it out, and
throw it away. Then eat (the rest of) your clarified butter." This
is related by al-Bukhari.
Commenting on the subject, al-Hafezh Ibn Hajr says, "Ibn
'Abdul Barr reported that there is agreement that if a dead animal falls
into a solid matter, what the dead animal touches and what is around it
must be thrown away, provided that one can make sure that the animal did
not touch the remainder. As for a liquid substance, there is some difference
of opinion. The majority say that the entire liquid becomes impure; az-Zuhri,
al-Auza'i, and some others disagree with that opinion.
Fiqh 1.15: Purifying the skin of dead animals
Tanning purifies the skin and the fur of a dead animal.
This is based on the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas, in which the Prophet said,
"If the animal's skin is tanned, it is purified." (Related by
al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Fiqh 1.15 a: Purifying mirrors and similar objects
Mirrors, knives, swords, nails, bones, glass, painted pots
and other smooth surfaces that have no pores are purified by simply wiping
them and removing any impure remains. The companions of the Prophet used
to pray while wearing swords smeared with blood, and they used to just
wipe the swords to purify them.
Fiqh 1.15 b: Purifying shoes
Shoes may be purified by rubbing them against the ground,
as long as the remains of the impurity are removed. Abu Hurairah narrated
that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If one of
you stepped in some filth, the dirt will purify his shoes." Related
by Abu Dawud. In another narration it states, "If one of you steps
in some filth with his shoes on, the dirt will purify them." Abu
Sa'eed reported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, saying, "When a
person comes to the mosque, he should look at his shoes. If he finds any
filth on them, he should wipe them against the ground and pray in them."
(Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.) Since shoes are repeatedly exposed to
filth, it is sufficient just to wipe them against the ground. This is
similar to the case of defecation. In fact, it is stronger than that case,
as defecation usually occurs only two or three times a day.
Fiqh 1.15 c: Useful points that are greatly needed concerning
Rope used for hanging clothes with impurities on them may
afterwards be used for hanging pure clothes.
If a liquid falls on a person and he does not know if it
was water or urine, he need not inquire about it. If he does inquire,
the one who is asked need not answer him even if he knows that the liquid
is impure. In that case, the person need not wash his clothes.
If a person finds something moist on his body or clothes
at night, and he does not know what it is, he need not smell it to discover
what it might be. It is related that 'Umar passed by a gutter (and got
wet). 'Umar's companion asked the owner of the gutter if the water was
pure or impure. 'Umar told the owner not to answer the question, and went
on his way.
Clothes that have street mud on them need not be washed.
Reported Kamyal ibn Ziyad, "I saw 'Ali wading through the mud, after
which he entered the mosque and prayed without washing his legs."
If a person finishes his prayer and sees some impurities
on his clothes or body of which he was not previously aware, or he was
aware of them but forgot about them, or he did not forget about them but
he was not able to remove them, then his prayer is still valid and he
need not repeat it. This opinion is supported by Allah's statement, "And
there is no sin for you in the mistakes you make unintentionally."
(al-Ahzab 5). Many of the companions and those of the following generation
gave this legal verdict.
If a person can not determine what part of his clothes contain
the impurity, he should wash the whole garment. This is based on the axiom,
"If an obligation cannot be fulfilled except by performing another
related act, then that act also becomes obligatory."
If a person mixes his pure clothes with his impure clothes
(and gets confused between them), he should investigate the matter and
pray once in one of the clothes. This is similar to the question of the
exact direction of the qiblah. It does not matter if the proportion of
pure clothes was large or small.
Fiqh 1.16: It is not proper for one to carry something
that has Allah's name upon it while he is going to the bathroom
It is not proper for one to carry something that has Allah's
name upon it (unless he is afraid of losing it or having it stolen), while
he is going to the bathrom. Anas related that the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, had a ring engraved with Muhammad Rasool-ullah, (Muhammad
the Messenger of Allah), which he would remove when he went to the bathroom.
Ibn Hajr says that this hadith is malul (a type of weak hadith having
a defect) and Abu Dawud says it is m unkar, (singularly related by people
who are not trustworthy). The first portion of the hadith is authentic,
Fiqh 1.17: He should move and hide himself from others
while going to the bathroom
This is especially true in the case of defecation, so others
can not hear noxious sounds or smell bad odors. Said Jabir, "We were
journeying with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he would
only relieve himself when he was out of sight." (This is related
by Ibn Majah.) Abu Dawud records that, "When he wanted to relieve
himself, he would go where no one could see him." He also related,
"When the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, went out he would
go very far away."
Fiqh 1.17 a: One should mention the name of Allah and seek
refuge in Him when entering the privy or removing his clothes to relieve
Anas reported that when the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
be peace, entered the privy he would say, "In the name of Allah.
O Allah! I seek refuge in you from male and female noxious beings (devils)."
This is related by "the group."
Fiqh 1.17 b: One should not talk when going to the bathroom
One should not respond to a greeting or repeat what the
caller to prayer is saying. He may speak if there is some necessity (i.e.,
to guide a blind man who fears he may be harmed). If he sneezes, he should
praise Allah to himself and simply move his lips (without making a sound).
Ibn 'Umar related that a man passed by the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
and greeted him while he (the Prophet) was urinating. The Prophet did
not return his greeting. (This is related by "the group," except
for al-Bukhari.) Abu Sa'eed reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, say, "Isn't it true that Allah detests those
who converse while they relieve themselves?" This was related by
Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
This hadith seems to support the position that it is forbidden
to talk. Many scholars, however, say that it is only disliked, not forbidden.
Fiqh 1.18: One should neither face nor turn his back on
the qiblah while relieving himself
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon
whom be peace, said, "When one of you relieves himself, he should
neither face the qiblah nor turn his back on it." This was related
by Ahmad and Muslim.
The prohibition implies that it is only disliked. As Ibn
'Umar related that he once went to Hafsah's home, where he saw the Messenger
of Allah relieving himself while facing Syria with his back to the Ka'bah.
This is related by "the group." Some reconciliate these hadith
by saying that in the desert it is forbidden to face or turn one's back
on the Ka'bah, while it is permitted in buildings. Said Marwan al-Asghar,
"I saw 'Umar sitting on his she-camel and facing the qiblah while
urinating. I said, 'O father of 'Abdurahman ... is this not forbidden?'
He said, 'Certainly not ... This has been prohibited only in open areas.
If there is a barricade (or separator) between you and the qiblah, there
is nothing wrong with it."
This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hakim.
Its chain is hassan as Ibn Hajr said in Fath al-Bari.
Fiqh 1.18 a: One should seek a soft and low piece of ground
to protect himself from impurities
Abu Musa related that the Messenger of Allah came to a low
and soft part of the ground and urinated. He then said, "When one
of you urinates, he should choose the proper place to do so."
This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. One of its narrators
is unknown, but its meaning is sound.
Fiqh 1.18 b: One should not use a hole in the ground
Qatadah related from 'Abdullah ibn Sarjas who said, "The
Messenger of Allah forbade urination into a hole." Said Qatadah,
"What is disliked about urinating into a hole?" Said he, "It
is the residence of the jinn."
This hadith is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim
and al-Baihaqi. Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn as-Sakin classified it as sahih.
Fiqh 1.18 c: One should avoid shaded places and those places
where people walk and gather
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon
whom be peace, said, "Beware of those acts which cause others to
curse." They asked, "What are those acts?" He said, "Relieving
yourself in the people's walkways or in their shade." This hadith
is related by Ahmad, Muslim and Abu Dawud.
Fiqh 1.19: One should not urinate in bathing places or
in still or running water
'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal narrated that the Prophet said,
"None of you should urinate in a bathing place and then make ablution
in the water. The majority of waswas comes from that." This is related
by "the five," but the statement, "and then make ablution
in it" was only related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Jabir said the Prophet
forbade urinating in still as well as running water. (Related by Ahmad,
an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) In Majma az-Zuwaid it states, "This was
related by at-Tabarani, and its narrators are trustworthy."
If there is a drain in the bathing place, it is permissible
to urinate into it.
Fiqh 1.19 a: One may not urinate while standing
If a person can guarantee that no impurities will touch
his clothes, it is permissible to urinate while standing. Said 'Aishah,
"If someone relates to you that the Messenger of Allah urinated while
standing, do not believe him. He only urinated while sitting." This
hadith is related by "the five," except for Abu Dawud. At-Tirmizhi's
comment is, "It is the best thing related on this point, and it is
the most authentic."
One should not forget that what 'Aishah said is based on
the knowledge that she had. Huzhaifah relates that the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, went to a public garbage dump and urinated while standing.
Huzhaifah went away, and the Prophet then called him over. The Prophet
made ablution and wiped over his shoes. This is related by "the group."
Commenting upon the issue, an-Nawawi says, "To urinate
while sitting is most desirable in my opinion, but to do so standing is
permissible. Both acts are confirmed by the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
Fiqh 1.19 b: One must remove any impurities from his clothes
To do so, he can use a rock, stone or any other pure matter.
One may use only water to clean the area, or any combinations of purifying
agents. 'Aishah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
said, "When one of you goes to relieve himself, he should clean himself
with three stones." (Related by Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni).
Anas related that the Messenger of Allah would enter the
privy, and that Anas and another boy would carry the water container and
spear for him. The Prophet would clean himself with water." (Related
by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Ibn 'Abbas related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
be peace, passed by two graves and said, "They are being punished.
But they are not being punished for a great matter (on their part). One
of them did not clean himself from urine and the other used to spread
slander." (Related by "the group.")
Anas also related the Prophet as saying, "Purify yourselves
from urine, as most punishment in the grave is due to it."
Fiqh 1.20: One should not clean himself with his right
'Abdurahman ibn Zaid related that Salman was asked, "Your
Prophet teaches you everything, even how to relieve yourselves?"
Salman said, "Certainly ... He forbade us from facing the qiblah
while doing so, from cleaning ourselves with our right hand, and from
cleaning ourselves with less than three stones. We also should not use
an impure substance or a bone to clean ourselves." (Related by Muslim,
Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.)
Hafsah reported, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom
be peace, reserved his right hand for eating, drinking, putting on his
clothes, taking and giving. He used his left hand for other actions."
(Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi).
Fiqh 1.20 a: One should remove any bad smell from his hands
after cleaning himself
Abu Hurairah said, "When the Messenger of Allah upon
whom be peace, relieved himself, I used to bring him a container of water.
He would cleanse himself, then rub his hands against the soil." (Related
by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and Ibn Majah.)
Fiqh 1.20 b: One should sprinkle his penis and underwear
with water after urination
Make sure that he has cleansed himself. If one finds some
dampness in his clothes after so doing, he can content himself by saying,
"That is just water." This is based on the hadith related by
al-Hakim ibn Sufyan or Sufyan ibn al-Hakim who said, "When the Messenger
of Allah, upon whom be peace, urinated, he would wash and sprinkle (his
penis)." In another narration it states, "I saw the Messenger
of Allah urinate, after which he sprinkled water over his penis."
Ibn 'Umar used to sprinkle his penis until his underwear became wet.
Fiqh 1.20 c: Entering the bathroom
One should enter the bathroom or a privy with his left foot,
and exit with his right foot, saying: "O Allah! I seek your forgiveness."
'Aishah related that when the Messenger of Allah left the bathroom, he
would say this supplication. (Related by "the five," except
for an-Nasa'i.) What 'Aishah stated is the soundest statement on this
topic. It is related through a number of weak chains that the Prophet,
upon whom be peace, used to say, "Praise be to Allah who made the
filth leave me and who has given me health," and "Praise be
to Allah who let me enjoy it, kept for me its energy and relieved me of
Fiqh 1.21: Acts that correspond to the Nature of Mankind
Allah has chosen certain acts for all of His prophets and
their followers to perform. These acts distinguish them from the rest
of mankind, and are known as sunan al-fitra, (the acts that correspond
to the nature of mankind).
Fiqh 1.21 a: Circumcision
This prevents dirt from getting on one's penis, and also
makes it easy to keep it clean. For women, it involves cutting the outer
portion of the clitoris. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah
said, "Ibrahim circumcised himself after he was eighty years old."
(Related by al-Bukhari.) Many scholars say that it is obligatory.'ø The
Shaf'iyyah maintain that it should be done on the seventh day. Says ash-Shaukani,
"There is nothing that states explicitly its time or indicates that
it is obligatory."
Fiqh 1.21 b: Shaving pubic hairs and pulling out underarm
They are two sunan acts. If the hair is only trimmed or
pulled out, it will suffice.
Fiqh 1.21 c: Clipping one's fingernails, trimming and shaving
Ibn 'Umar related that the Messenger of Allah said, "Differ
from the polytheists: let your beards (grow)" and shave your moustache."
(Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim). Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger
of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Five things are part of one's
fitra: Shaving the pubic hairs, circumcision, trimming the moustache,
removing the hair under the arms and trimming the nails." (Related
by "the group.") It does not mention which one would specifically
fulfill the sunnah. One should make sure that his moustache is not so
long that food particles, drink and dirt accumulate in it. Zaid ibn Arqam
related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said "Whoever does
not take (off) some of his moustache is not one of us." (Related
by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who classified it as sahih.) It is
preferred to cut the pubic hairs, pluck out the underarm hairs, cut the
nails and trim the moustache on a weekly basis, a practice which is most
hygenic. If some unnecessary hair is left on the body for a longer period
of time, it may disturb the person. One may leave this action for forty
days, but no longer. Said Anas, "The time period for us to trim the
moustache, cut the nails, pluck out the underarm hairs and cut the pubic
hairs was forty nights." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and others).
Fiqh 1.22: Letting one's beard grow and become thick
This is a feature of dignity. It should not be cut so short
that it appears like a shaved beard, nor should it be left so long that
it becomes untidy. It is also a sign of manhood. Says al-Bukhari, "Whenever
Ibn 'Umar made the hajj or 'umrah, he would hold his beard in his fist
and, whatever exceeded his fist, he would cut off."
Fiqh 1.22 a: Oiling and combing one's hair
Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, as
saying, "Whoever has hair should honor it." (Related by Abu
Said 'Ata ibn Yasar, "A man came to the Prophet with
unkempt hair and an untidy beard. The Prophet pointed to him, as if ordering
him to straighten his hair and beard. He did so and returned. Thereupon
the Prophet observed, 'Is that not better than one of you coming with
his hair unkempt, as if he were a devil?"' (Related by Malik.)
Abu Qatadah related that he had a great amount of hair.
He asked the Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, I have lots of hair.
Should I comb it?" He answered, "Yes ... and honor it."
Abu Qatadah used to oil it twice a day due to the Prophet's words, "...
and honor it."
Cutting one's hair off is permissible, and so is letting
it grow if one honors it. Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet, upon whom
be peace, said, "Shave it all or leave it all." (Related by
Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i). To shave part of it and leave
part of it is greatly disliked. Nafa' related from Ibn 'Umar that the
Messenger of Allah prohibited qiza'. Nafa' asked, "What is qiza'
?" He said, "It is to shave off part of the hair of a youth
and to leave part." (AlBukhari and Muslim.)
Fiqh 1.23: Leaving grey hairs in place
This applies to both men and women. 'Amr ibn Shu'aib related
on the authority of his father from his grandfather that the Prophet said,
"Do not pluck the grey hairs as they are a Muslim's light. Never
a Muslim grows grey in Islam except that Allah writes for him, due to
that, a good deed. And he raises him a degree. And he erases for him,
due to that, one of his sins." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi,
an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) And Anas said, "We used to hate that a
man should pluck out his white hairs from his head or beard." (Related
by Muslim. )
Fiqh 1.23 a: Changing the color of grey hair by using henna,
red dye, yellow dye, and so on
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said, "The Jews and Christians do not dye, so differ from them."
(Related by "the group.") Abu Zharr reported that the Messenger
of Allah said, "The best thing that one can use to change the color
of grey hairs is henna and katm (a reddish dye)." (Related by "the
There are some narrations that state that dying is disliked,
but it is obvious that these narrations conflict with the sunnah and custom.
It is related from some of the companions that it is better not to dye,
while others say it is better to do it. Some used a yellow dye, while
others used henna or katm. Others used saffron, and a group of them used
a black dye. Ibn Hajr mentioned in Fath al-Bari that az-Zuhri said, "We
used black dye if our face was youthful, but if wrinkles were present
and the teeth were gone we would not use it." Said Jabir, "Abu
Quhafah (Abu Bakr's father) was brought to the Prophet during the conquest
of Makkah while his head was "white." The Prophet, upon whom
be peace, said, "Take him to one of his wives and let her change
the color of his hair with something, but she should avoid (making his
hair) black." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari
and at-Tirmizhi). This dealt with a certain incident, and cannot be generalized.
Furthermore, black would not be proper for someone as old as Abu Quhafah.
Fiqh 1.24: To use musk and other types of perfume
These are pleasing to the soul and beautify the atmosphere.
Anas reported the Messenger of Allah as saying, "Among the things
of this world, I love women and perfume, and the coolness of my eyes is
prayer." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.) Abu Hurairah reported
that the Messenger of Allah said, "If someone offers perfume, do
not reject it, for it is light to carry and has a sweet scent." (Related
by Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet
said about musk, "It is the best of perfumes." (Related by "the
group," except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah).
Nafa' narrated that Ibn 'Umar used to burn and inhale a
branch called aluwah that has a nice smell. He also used camphor. He used
to say, "This is the way the Messenger of Allah inhaled such scents
(that is, by burning them.)" (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.)
Fiqh 1.25: Ablution means to wash one's face, hands, arms,
head and feet with water.
Fiqh 1.25 a: Part of Islamic law
This is proven from the three major sources of Islamic law:
1 The Qur'an. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "O you
who believe, when you rise for prayer, wash your faces and your hands
up to the elbows and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to
the ankles (al-Mai'dah 6).
2 The Sunnah. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger
of Allah said, "Allah does not accept the prayer of one who nullified
his ablution until he performs it again." (Related by al-Bukhari,
Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi.)
3 The Consensus. There is a consensus of scholarly
opinion that ablution is part of Islamic law. Therefore, it is a recognized
fact of the religion.
Fiqh 1.25 b: Its virtues
Many hadith state the virtues of ablution. We shall mention
just a few:
1 'Abdullah ibn as-Sunnabiji stated that the Messenger
of Allah said, "When a slave makes ablution and rinses his mouth,
his wrong deeds fall from it. As he rinses his nose, his wrong deeds fall
from it. When he washes his face, his wrong deeds fall from it until they
fall from beneath his eyelashes. When he washes his hands, his wrong deeds
fall from them until they fall from beneath his fingernails. When he wipes
his head, his wrong deeds fall from it until they fall from his ears.
When he washes his feet, his wrong deeds fall from them until they fall
from beneath his toenails. Then his walking to the mosque and his prayer
give him extra reward." (Related by Malik, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and
2 Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said,
"If good characteristics exist in a person, Allah makes all of his
acts good. If a person purifies himself for prayer, he expiates all of
his sins and his prayer is considered an extra reward for him." (Related
by Abu Ya'la, al-Bazzar and at-Tabarani in al-Ausat.)
3 Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah
said, "'Shall I inform you (of an act) by which Allah erases sins
and raises degrees?" They said, "Certainly, O Messenger of Allah."
He said, "Perfecting the ablution under difficult circumstances,
taking many steps to the mosque, and waiting for the (next) prayer after
the (last) prayer has been performed. That is ribat. (Related by Malik,
Muslim, at-Tirmizhi and an-Nasa'i.)
4 Abu Hurairah also reported that the Messenger of
Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by a grave site and said, "Peace
be upon you, O home of believing people. Allah willing, we shall meet
you soon, although I wish I could see my brothers." They asked, "Are
we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "You are
my companions. My brothers are the ones who will come after (us)."
They said, "How will you know the people of our nation who will come
after you, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "If a man has a group
of horses with white forelocks amidst a group of horses with black forelocks,
will he recognize his horses?" They said, "Certainly, O Messenger
of Allah." He said, "They (my brothers) will come with white
streaks from their ablutions, and I will receive them at my cistern. But
there will be some who will be driven away from my cistern as a stray
camel is driven away. I will call them to come. It will be said, 'They
changed matters after you,' then I will say, 'Be off, be off."' (Related
Fiqh 1.27: The obligatory parts of the ablution
Ablution has certain components which, if not fulfilled
according to the correct Islamic procedures, make one's ablution void.
Fiqh 1.27 a: Intention
This is the desire to do the action and to please Allah
by following His command. It is purely an act of the heart, for the tongue
(verbal pronouncement, and so on) has nothing to do with it. To pronounce
it is not part of the Islamic law. That the intention is obligatory is
shown in the following: 'Umar related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said, "Every action is based on the intention (behind it), and everyone
shall have what he intended..." (Related by "the group.")
Fiqh 1.27 b: Washing the face
This involves "pouring" or "running"
water from the top of the forehead to the bottom of the jaws, and from
one ear to the other.
Fiqh 1.27 c: Washing the arms to the elbow
The elbows must be washed, for the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, did so.
Fiqh 1.27 d: Wiping the head
This means to wipe one's head with his hand. It is not sufficient
just to place the hand on the head or to touch the head with a wet finger.
The apparent meaning of the Qur'anic words, "...and wipe over your
heads..." does not imply that all of the head needs to be wiped.
It has been recorded that the Prophet used to wipe his head three different
1 Wiping all of his head. 'Abdullah ibn Zaid reported
that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, wiped his entire head with his hands.
He started with the front of his head, then moved to the back, and then
returned his hands to the front. (Related by "the group.").
2 Wiping over the turban only. Said 'Amru ibn Umayyah,
"I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wipe over his
turban and shoes." (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah).
Bilal reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Wipe
over your shoes and head covering." (Related by Ahmad.) 'Umar once
said, "May Allah not purify the one who does not consider wiping
over the turban to be purifying." Many hadith have been related on
this topic by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others. Most of the scholars agree
Wiping over the front portion of the scalp and the turban
Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah said that the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, made ablution and wiped over the front portion of
his scalp, his turban and his socks. (Related by Muslim.) There is, however,
no strong hadith that he wiped over part of his head, even though al-Ma'idah:
apparently implies it. It is also not sufficient just to wipe over locks
of hair that proceed from the head or along the sides of the head.
Fiqh 1.28: Washing the feet and the heels
This has been confirmed in mutawatir (continuous) reports
from the Prophet, upon whom be peace, concerning his actions and statements.
Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet lagged behind us in one of our travels.
He caught up with us after we had delayed the afternoon prayer. We started
to make ablution and were wiping over our feet, when the Prophet said,
'Woe to the heels, save them from the Hell-fire,' repeating it two or
three times." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
Needless to say, the preceding obligations are the ones
that Allah has mentioned in (al-Ma'idah 6).
Fiqh 1.28 a: Following the prescribed sequence
Allah mentioned the obligations in a specific order. He
also differentiated the legs from the hands--though both of them have
to be washed--from the head, which only needs to be wiped. The polytheists
of Arabia would not differentiate items unless there was some benefit
in doing so. The way Allah structured the ablution made it easier for
them to comprehend it. Al-Ma'idah 6 explains what is obligatory and it
falls under the generality of the Prophet's statement, "Begin with
what Allah began with." The Prophet used to follow that sequence
as one of ablution's principles. There is no such report that the Prophet,
upon whom be peace, ever departed from that sequence. Ablution is part
of worship, and in matters of worship there is no room for anything except
doing what has been commanded.
Fiqh 1.28 c:
This section deals with those acts connected with the ablution,
but which are not obligatory, as the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did
not rigorously stick to them or censure anyone for not doing them. They
are as follows:
Fiqh 1.29: Mentioning the name of Allah at the beginning
There are some weak hadith that mention this act, and all
of the chains of these hadith point to the fact that there is some basis
for this act. In any case, it is a good act in and of itself and, in general,
it is part of the Islamic law.
Fiqh 1.29 a: Dental Hygiene
This involves using a stick or similar object to clean one's
teeth. The best type to use is that of the arak tree found in the Hejaz.
Such a practice strengthens the gums, prevents tooth disease, helps digestion
and facilitates the flow of urine. This sunnah is fulfilled by using any
object which removes yellow stains on the teeth and cleans the mouth,
such as a toothbrush, and so on. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet,
upon whom be peace, said, "Were it not to be a hardship on my community,
I would have ordered them to use a toothbrush for every ablution."
(Related by Malik, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim.) 'Aishah reported
that the Prophet said, "The toothbrush purifies the mouth and is
pleasing to the Lord." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi.)
Using a toothbrush is liked at any time, but there are five
times in which it is especially liked:
3 reading the Qur'an,
4 rising from sleep, and
5 when the taste in one's mouth has changed. Fasting
and non-fasting people may use it at the beginning, the end, or at any
other time during the day. 'Amr ibn Rabi'ah said, "I have seen the
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, on countless occasions using a
toothbrush while fasting." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi.)
When one uses a toothbrush, it is sunnah to clean it afterwards.
Said 'Aishah, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used his toothbrush,
he would give it to me. I would wash it, use it, wash it again and give
it back to him." (Related by Abu Dawud and alBaihaqi.)
It is part of the sunnah that one who has no teeth may use
his fingers to clean his mouth. Asked 'Aishah, "O Messenger of Allah,
how should a toothless person cleanse his mouth?" "By putting
his fingers into his mouth," he replied. (Related by at-Tabarani.)