Fiqh-us-Sunnah
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Fiqh 2.125: The virtues of Jumu'ah, Friday prayer

Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. [On Friday] Adam was created and on that day he entered paradise and on that day he was expelled from paradise. And the Hour will come to pass on Friday." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.

Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet said: "The most prominent of the days [lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the most honored in Allah's sight, and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the day of breaking the fast or the day of sacrifice. It has five significant merits: Allah created Adam on this day; on this day Allah sent Adam down to the earth; on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; on this day, there is a time during which if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted to him unless he asks for something which is forbidden; and on this day, the Hour will be established. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind or mountain or sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is hasan.

Fiqh 2.125 a: Supplications during Friday

One should do one's best to make supplications during the last moments (or hours) of Jumu'ah.

'Abdullah ibn Salam relates: "I said, and the Messenger of Allah was sitting: 'We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an 'hour' in which, if a believing slave prays to Allah for something, his prayer is (indeed) accepted and he is granted what ever he prays for.' The Messenger of Allah pointed toward me and said: 'Or part of an hour.' I said: 'You have spoken the truth: or part of an hour.' I asked: 'What hour is it?' He replied: 'The last hour of the day.' I remarked: 'That is not a time of salah?' He responded: 'Certainly [it is]; if a believing slave offers salah and then sits, he will not be sitting, save due to the salah, and he will be in salah."' This is related by Ibn Majah.

Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah said: "On Jumu'ah there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for some good, [Allah will definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'asr salah." This is related by Ahmad. Al-'Iraqi calls it sahih.

Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah has twelve hours, and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [of Allah] asking Allah for something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it in the last hour after the 'Asr salah." This is related by anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls it sahih according to Muslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.

Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman reports that some companions of the Prophet gathered and mentioned the "hour on Jumu'ah." They left and did not differ on the fact that it is the last hour of Jumu'ah. This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar calls it sahih.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in which the supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asr prayer, and some state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."

There is a hadith recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud which states that Abu Musa heard the Messenger of Allah say concerning the special hour on Jumu'ah: "It is between the time that the imam sits [i.e., upon the pulpit] and the time that the salah is completed." All the same, this particular hadith is defective because its chain is broken and it is mudtarib.

Fiqh 2.126: Making many prayers and salutations upon the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during the night and the day of Jumu'ah

Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." This is related by the five, except for at-Tirmizhi.

Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in this life and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good of this life and the next life for this ummah, and the greatest honor and success will be granted to them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their houses and palaces in paradise and that is the day they will be given more when they enter paradise. It is a day of celebration for them in this life. It is also a day in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their prayers and requests in this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it because of the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings]; therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we received through him, we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night of Jumu 'ah."

Fiqh 2.127: Recitation of Surah al-Kahf

It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day and night of Jumu'ah.

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next." This is related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and alHakim.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feet to the peak of the sky. This will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven for what is between the Jumu'ah [and the next] Jumu'ah." This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with a faultless chain.

Fiqh 2.127 a: It is disliked to raise one's voice while reciting al-Kahf in the mosque on Friday

Shaikh Muhammad 'Abdu issued a verdict that mentioned reciting Surah al-Kahf aloud among the many disliked matters on Friday. He also mentioned the following: singling out Friday as a day of fasting, singling out its night as a night to perform salatul tahajjud, reciting Surah al-Kahf during it with a specific manner of melody which disturbs those who are offering salah, while the people in the mosque are not listening because of their being engaged in conversation with others. Therefore, one should be careful about such a recital.

Fiqh 2.128: Performing ghusl, beautifying one's self, using the miswak, and using perfume for any gathering and especially for Salatul Jumu'ah

It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:

Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.

Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: "It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes." This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say: "And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfold reward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who has not committed major sins."

Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.

Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.

Fiqh 2.129: Going early to Salatul Jumu'ah

It is preferred for one to go early to the salatul Jumu'ah, unless he is the imam. 'Alqamah says: "I went with 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to the mosque and we found that three people had arrived there before us. [Ibn Mas'ud] said: 'The fourth of four, and the fourth of four is not far from Allah, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: "The people will be seated on the day of resurrection according to how they came to the salatul Jumu'ah: the first, then the second, then the third, then the fourth and the fourth of four is not far from Allah."' This is related by Ibn Majah and al-Munzhiri.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever makes ghusl on Jumu'ah like the ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to the mosque, it will be as if he had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during the second hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a cow. If he goes during the third hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If he goes during the fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goes during the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) an egg. When the imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to the rememberance." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.

Ash-Shaf'i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the "hours" refer to the hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred for the people to start attending the mosque right after dawn. Malik is of the opinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian. Ibn Rushd says: "That is the most apparent meaning as going [to the mosque] after the sun passes the meridian is obligatory."

Fiqh 2.129 a: Stepping over others' necks in the mosque

At-Tirmizhi reports that the people of knowledge dislike that one should "step over the necks of the people" on Jumu'ah and they were very strict in this regard. 'Abdullah ibn Busr says: "A man came and he was stepping over the necks of the people while the Prophet was delivering khutbah of Jumu'ah. He said to him: 'Sit down. You have harmed the people and have come late."' This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaimah, and others call it sahih.

This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening and cannot reach it, save by going over the people. If one wants to return to his place after leaving it due to some necessity, he may do so on the condition that he does not harm the people. 'Uqbah ibn al-Harith relates: "I prayed the 'asr in Medinah behind the Prophet and then he stood and hurried off, stepping over the people, to go to some of the apartments of his wives. The people were afraid because of his rushing away in this manner. When he came out and found them amazed at leaving them in such a hurry, he said: 'I remembered some gold that was in my possession and I hated that it should remain with me, so I ordered it to be distributed."' This is related by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i.

And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.

Fiqh 2.130: Nawafl before salatul Jumu'ah

It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until the imam arrives. After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to perform tahayyatul masjid.

Ibn 'Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu'ah and then two rak'at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related by Abu Dawud.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu'ah and the next and an additional three days." This is related by Muslim.

Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: "Did you offer the salah?" The man replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray two rak'at." This is related by the group. In one narration it states: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak'at." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Fiqh 2.130 a: Feeling drowsy while in the mosque

It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true for Fridays and any other day.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another place." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan sahih.

Fiqh 2.131: The Friday prayer as an obligation

The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu'ah is an individual obligation and it is two rak'at. Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, when the call for the salah of Jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and trading). That is best for you if you but knew."

The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."

Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet noticed some people staying away from al-Jumu'ah and said: "I had the notion to order someone to lead the people in prayer, and then to go and burn the houses of those who stayed away from al-Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.

Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam say: "Those who are not attending the Friday salah should change their ways; otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts and they will be reckoned the heedless." This is related by Muslim, and by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i from ibn 'Umar and ibn 'Abbas.

Abu al-Ja'd ad-Damari reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever misses three Friday prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over his heart by Allah." This is related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah have something similar from Jabir, while Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.

Fiqh 2.131 a: Upon whom salatul Jumu'ah is obligatory

Salatul Jumu'ah is an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, resident Muslim who has the ability to attend the salah and does not have a valid excuse to miss it. Salatul Jumu'ah, however, is not obligatory on the following:

1 Women and children. Concerning this category there is no difference of opinion.

2 The person who is ill and faces hardship if he goes to the mosque, or who fears that his illness will be increased by going to the mosque, or whose recovery will be delayed. This also includes the person who is nursing a very ill person if, especiallay, the ill person cannot manage in the absence of the nursing person.

Tariq ibn Shihab reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Al-Jumu'ah is a duty upon every Muslim in the community, save four: a slave, or a woman, or a child, or a person who is ill." An-Nawawi says that its chain is sahih according to the conditions set by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Ibn Hajr says that more than one person has graded it sahih.

3 For the traveler, even if he is staying at a certain place during the time of the beginning of salatul Jumu'ah, it is not obligatory. This is based on the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam traveled and did not perform the salatul Jumu'ah but only prayed the zuhr and 'asr together during the time of the zuhr prayers. The caliphs after him and others also acted in a similar manner.

4 One who is in debt and cannot repay his debt and therefore fears that he will be imprisoned, and one who fears that he will be harmed by an oppressive ruler: Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever hears the call to the salah and does not respond to it [i.e.,by coming to the salah], there will be no prayer for him unless he has an excuse." The people inquired: "O Messenger of Allah, what is a [valid] excuse?" He answered: "Fear or illness." This is related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.

5 Environmental restraints like rain, mud, extreme cold, and so on. Ibn 'Abbas said to the mu'azhzhin on a rainy day: "When you say 'I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' do not say 'Come to the prayer,' but say 'Pray in your houses."' The people objected to that and he told them: "One better than me did so [the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam]. Al-Jumu'ah is an obligation but I dislike that you should go out walking in the mud and slush." Abi Malih reports that his father had witnessed the day of Jumu'ah with the Prophet and it was raining and the people were troubled by their shoes so he ordered them to pray in their stopping places. This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

All of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah although they are obliged to pray the zuhr. Should one of them pray salatul Jumu'ah, it will still be valid for him or her and he will no longer be obliged to pray the zuhr. And the women during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, attended the mosque and used to pray al-Jumu'ah with him.

Fiqh 2.132: The Time of the Salatul Jumu'ah

The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-Jumu'ah is the same as that of the zuhr. Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and alBaihaqi record from Anas that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray al-Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its meridian. Ahmad and Muslim record that Salamah ibn al-Akua' said: "We would pray salatul Jumu'ah with the Prophet when the sun had passed the meridian, and when we returned [from the salah], we would be following our shadow." Al-Bukhari says: "The time of al-Jumu'ah is when the sun passes its meridian." Similar narrations have been recorded from 'Umar, 'Ali, an-Nu'man ibn Bashir, and 'Umar ibn Harith. Ash-Shaf'i says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and the imams after them all prayed the Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its zenith."

The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that the time for al-Jumu'ah is from the beginning of the time for salatul 'id to the end of the time for the zuhr. They base their opinion on Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i who record from Jabir: "The Prophet would pray alJumu'ah and then we would take our camels to rest until the sun passed its zenith." This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-Jumu'ah before the sun passed the meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Saidan as-Salmi who said: "We prayed al-Jumu'ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were before noon. Then we prayed with 'Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasted until after the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either for it." This is related by Ahmad, who cites it as a proof, and by ad-Daraqutni. Ahmad adds: "And [something] similar to that has been related from ibn Mas'ud, Jabir, Sa'id, and Mu'awiyyah. They all prayed before the sun passed the meridian and no one objected to what they did, and that was the consensus. The majority of the scholars, however, interpret the hadith of Jabir as implying that one should pray the salah early in its time, when the sun has passed the meridian, and not wait until the weather gets cool. The prayer and the resting of the camels was right after the sun passed the meridian. As to the report from 'Abdullah ibn Saidan, these scholars consdier it weak. Ibn Hajar writes about him: 'He is one of the major tabi'in [i.e., of the generation after the companions], and his integrity is not well-established. 'Adi says: "He is somewhat majhul, i.e. unknown as a trustworthy person." Bukhari observes. "His report is not to be trusted, especially when he is contradicted by people who are more credible (qawi) than him as Ibn abi Shaibah relates from Suwaid ibn Ghaflah that the later prayed with Abu Bakr and 'Umar after the sun had passed the meridian and its chain is strong. "'

Fiqh 2.133: The number of people required for al-Jumu'ah

There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessary condition for the validity of al-Jumu'ah. This is based on the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab who reports that the Prophet said: "Al-Jumu 'ah is an obligation ( wajib) upon every Muslim in the community." However, the scholars do differ on how many people are required for al-Jumu'ah. There are fifteen different opinions on this question and they are mentioned by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari. The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah is valid if there are two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to have said: "Two or more constitute a congregation."

Ash-Shaukani says: 'The other prayers are considered to be made in congregation if there are two people present. The same applies to Jumu'ah salah, unless there is a reason for it to be different. There is no evidence to show that [for the purpose of the congregation] its number should be larger than that for the other prayers. 'Abdul Haqq says: 'There is no confirmed hadith on the number of people needed for al-Jumu'ah.' Similarly, as-Sayuti holds: 'There is no confirmed hadith which states a particular number [for the Jumu'ah salah].'" This is also the opinion of at-Tabari, Dawud, an-Nakha'i, and Ibn Hazm.

Fiqh 2.134: The place for al-Jumu'ah

It is valid to perform the Jumu'ah salah in any country, city, mosque, any building in a city, or in any space in a city as it also is valid to have it performed in more than one place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people of Bahrain: "Offer the Jumu'ah salah wherever you may be." This is related by Ibn abi Shaibah. Ahmad holds its chain to be good. This includes both the cities and countryside.

Ibn 'Abbas says: "The first Friday salah that was performed in Islam, after the Friday salah in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam in Medinah, was in Jawa'i, a village in Bahrain." This is related by al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.

Al-Laith ibn Sa'd reports that the people of Egypt and of the surrounding sea-shore would perform the Jumu'ah salah during the time of 'Umar and 'Uthman according to their orders. Some of the companions of the Prophet attended jumu'ah prayer with them. Ibn 'Umar saw the people in the areas between Makkah and Medinah performing the Jumu'ah prayers, and he did not object to their action. This is related by 'Abdurrazzaq with a sahih chain.

Fiqh 2.134 a: Conditions Stipulated By The Jurists for the Friday Prayer

Some of the conditions under which the jumu'ah salah becomes obligatory have already been mentioned (i.e., it is obligatory for a free, sane, adult male resident who does not have a valid excuse which would excuse him from attending the prayer). It was also mentioned that a congregation is a condition for the Friday salah. This is what the sunnah of the Prophet teaches us and what Allah holds us responsible for. Concerning the other stipulations which some of the jurists stipulate for the Jumu'ah salah, none of them has any basis to which we may refer, or any evidence to support it. It will be sufficient here to simply quote the author of ar-Raudah anNadiyah who writes:

[The Friday salah] is like the rest of the prayers and there is nothing in it that differs from them, unless there is some evidence to the contrary. This statement refutes those who stipulate, as a necessary conditions for Friday prayer, the presence of a well-established imam and a congregational mosque in the area as well as a certain number of people attending the congregational prayer. There is no evidence whatever that those conditions are even preferred - not to speak of being obligatory, or for that matter, being a necessary condition for the Friday salah. If two people pray the Jumu'ah in a place where there is no one else but them, they would have performed their prescribed duty. If one of them delivers the khutbah, they would be following what is sunnah; and if they leave the khutbah, then it is only the sunnah which they have neglected, (not something which was obligatory). But for the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab which clearly requires every Muslim to offer it in congregation and the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed it in a congregation, offering it individually, like the rest of the prayers, would have been quite acceptable. Concerning the statement "from four people to the ruler of the area," that is certainly not the Prophet's statement nor of any of his companions... In fact, [this is] a statement of al-Hassan al-Basri. As to various statements and psuedojuristic opinions concerning this noble worship, the Friday prayer, which Allah has prescribed once a week as one of the signs of Islam, a little consideration should suffice to show their superfluity and error. One of these is the amazing statement that khutbah is equivalent to two rak'at of salah, and if one misses it, then his jumu'ah is not valid. They seem to be quite ignorant of what has been related from the Prophet through a number of chains which support each other that "if a person misses one rak'ah, then he is to perform another rak'ah and his salah would be completed." Have not other ahadith reached them that are valid in such matters? Some say that one cannot perform the Jumu'ah unless there are three people with the imam and others hold that four people are needed, while yet others stipulate seven people! Still others say nine, and some think twelve, twenty, thirty, and there are even some who think forty, fifty, seventy, and every number that is between those numbers!

Some hold that many people have to be present without specifying a particular number, while others state that al-Jumu'ah may only be performed in a city in which there is a "congregational mosque." Some are convinced that there have to be so many thousand people living in the area. Some hold that there has to be a congregational mosque and a public restroom. Yet others propose that the prayer is not obligatory unless there is a well-known and established imam; if such an imam cannot be found or if his credibility is doubtful, then the Friday salah is neither obligatory nor legitimate....No such statement can be found [in the book of Allah or in the sunnah] to support what they claim to be the conditions or prerequisites of the Jumu'ah... Whoever comes with such gibberish must be refuted for the only criterion is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. As Allah says in the Qur'an: "If you dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the Messenger"; "The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger, in order that he may judge between them is no other than this: they say: "We hear and we obey"; "But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction." Those verses and others similar to them are the clearest evidence that one must return to the rule of Allah and His Messenger if there is any dispute. The rule of Allah is the Book of Allah. The rule of the Messenger, after his passing away, is his sunnah and nothing other than that. Also, Allah did not endow any of his slaves - even if he reaches the highest degree of knowledge and has accumulated what no one else has - with the right to make any statement concerning this religion without any authority from the Book or the Sunnah. Likewise, if a mujtahid (jurisconsult) should take liberty of proposing an opinion without substantiating it, then it is not permissible for anyone to follow him in that, regardless of who he may be. I, as Allah knows, am always greatly astonished by this type of writers and their writings which supposedly provide guidance in one's creed and practice but which are filled with gibberish. This is not limited to only some of the schools among the different schools of law, or only certain areas from among the different areas, or only certain eras from among all of the eras [it is found in all of these schools of law, areas, and eras]! In fact, the later people follow the earlier people [in such things] as if they were following the umm al-kitab [mother of the Book], although, [they follow] distorted teachings.

Fiqh 2.137: Ruling concerning khutbah

The majority of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that khutbahtul Jumu'ah is obligatory and they support this by the confirmed hadith which state that the Prophet always made the khutbah with the Jumu'ah. In their support they also quote the saying of the Prophet: "Pray as you see me pray," and the Qur'anic verse: "O you who believe, when the call is proclaimed for salatul jumu'ah, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah." This verse contains an order to hasten unto the remembrance, which implies it is obligatory, and (the scholars) interpret the remembrance of Allah to include the khutbatul Jumu'ah. AshShaukani refutes the first argument by saying that hadith simply states the action of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and does not necessarily prove that such an action is obligatory. As to the verse, he regards it as simply a command to be present at the salah which is obligatory and excludes khutbah... Regarding their argument relating to the commandment to "hasten unto the rememberance of Allah," he says it refers to salah only, which is the real cause for making haste. There is, however, an agreement that the Friday salah is obligatory while there is a dispute over whether or not the khutbah is obligatory. Ash-Shaukani concludes by saying that apparently the correct view is the one held by al-Hassan al-Basri, Dawud az-Zahiri and al-Juwaini, that the khutbah is only a highly recommended act.

Fiqh 2.137 a: The greeting of the imam

The imam should greet the people when he comes upon the pulpit, followed by the azhan which is to be made when he sits. The imam should face the people during the azhan.

Jabir reports that when the Prophet mounted the pulpit, he would greet the people. This is related by Ibn Majah and in its chain is Ibn Lahiya, and al-Athram has recorded it in his Sunnan from ash-Sha'biy, on the authority of the Prophtet, in mursal form. Ata' and others also reported in mursal form that when the Prophet walked to the top of the pulpit, he would turn to the people and say: "Peace be upon you." According to ashSha'biy: "Abu Bakr and 'Umar used to do that [also]."

As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informs: "The first azhan to salah made on the day of Jumu'ah was made when the imam sat upon the pulpit during the time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar. Then, during the time of 'Uthman, since there were many people, he instituted a third azhan outside the mosque. The Prophet only had one mu'azhzhin." This is related by alBukhari, an-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: "During the time of 'Uthman, there were many people, so 'Uthman ordered the people to make a third call to salah on the day of Jumu'ah, outside of the mosque, and that practice has continued."

Ahmad and an-Nasa'i record: "Bilal would make the azhan to salah when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam sat upon the pulpit, and he would make the iqamah when the Prophet came down from the pulpit."

'Adi ibn-Thabit relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who said: "When the Prophet ascended the pulpit, he would face his companions." This is related by Ibn Majah. Concerning this latter hadilh, although there is some doubt about it, at-Tirmizhi says: "The people of knowledge from among the companions and others follow that and they prefer that the imam face the people when delivering the khutbah. "

Fiqh 2.138: Contents of the khutbah

It is preferred that the Friday khutbah include praises of Allah, the Exalted, prayers upon the Prophet, admonitions, and Qur'anic recitations.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassallam said: "Every speech that does not begin with the praises of Allah is defective." This is related by Abu Dawud. Ahmad has something similar to it.

In another version, it is stated: "The Friday khutbah that does not contain the testimony ["There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger] is like the defective hand." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.

Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet would say in his opening testimony: "All praise be to Allah, we seek His aid and we seek His forgiveness and we seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls. Whomever Allah guides, no one will be able to mislead him. Whoever He leaves astray will have no guidance for him. And I testify that there is no God except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger whom He sent with the truth and as a warner before the Hour. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be guided aright, and whoever disobeys them will only harm his own self and he will not harm Allah, the Exalted, at all."

Ibn Shihab was asked about the Prophet's opening testimony during his khutbah on the day of Jumu'ah, and he said something similar to that except that he stated: "Whoever disobeys them has gone astray." Abu Dawud related both of these reports.

Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Messenger of Allah would deliver his khutbah standing, would sit in between the two khutbahs, would recite some verses, and would remind the people [about Allah]." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.

The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow."

Jabir also related that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not make his admonitions on Friday too long, but give a very short khutbah. This is related by Abu Dawud.

Umm Hisham bint Harithah ibn an-Nu'man says: "I learnt [Surah] Qaf of the Glorious Qur'an from the Prophet for he recited it upon the pulpit every Friday when he addressed the people." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa' i, and Abu Dawud .

Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Ibn Majah records from Ubayy that the Messenger of Allah recited: "Blessed is He..." [Surah al-Mulk] on Friday while he was standing. In ar-Raudah an-Nadiyah, it is stated: "Thus the required khutbah, in terms of Islamic law, should be modeled after the Prophet's khutbah exhorting people to do good and warning them against dire consequences of the evil. This is the spirit of the address which the Islamic law has instituted. As to the other contents of the khutbah, like praising Allah, saying prayers upon His Messengers or reciting a portion of the Qur'an, none of these is its main purpose, which is to admonish people... It has been customary among the Muslims [in the light of the sunnah] that if one wanted to make some sort of proclamation, he would begin with praises of Allah and prayers upon His Prophet, or something of that nature. Still, that is not the purpose of the khutbah; indeed, the purpose is that which is said after praises of Allah and prayers for the prophet. If a person delivers a khutbah and confines it to only praising Allah and saying prayers upon the Prophet, his khutbah would hardly be acceptable. Any person with common sense could understand that.

It is the admonitary aspect of the Friday khutbah which the hadith emphasise, and if a khatib makes an admonition, he fulfills the purpose of shari'ah; if he precedes his khutbah with praises of Allah and prayers upon the Prophet and during his admonitions he uses Qur'anic verses, then he does it in a complete and satisfactory manner."

Fiqh 2.139: Posture during and between the khutbahs

It is proper for the imam to stand for the two khutbas and to sit for a short while in between them.

Ibn 'Umar said: "When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would deliver the Khutbatul Jumu'ah, he did so standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand [again, for the second khutbah] as the people do today." This is related by the group.

Jabir ibn-Samura said: "The Prophet would deliver the khutbah while standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand and speak again. Whoever says that he gave the khutbah while sitting has lied. Verily, I prayed with him more than two thousand prayers [including the five daily prayers]." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

Ibn abi-Shaibah records that Tawus said: "The Prophet gave the khutbah while standing and so did Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. The first one to give khutbah while sitting upon the pulpit was Mu'awiyyah," Ibn abiShaibah also records from ash-Sha'biy that Mu'awiyyah used to deliver the khutbah while sitting, when he became overweight. Some of the scholars say that it is obligatory to deliver the khutbah while standing and it is also obligatory to sit in between the two khutbahs. They cite the example of the Prophet and his companions who always did so; however, the fact that they consistently performed an act is not sufficient to prove that it is fard (obligatory) .

Fiqh 2.140: It is preferred to raise one's voice, to keep the khutbah short, and to the point

Ammar ibn Yasir reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Prolonging salah and shortening one's khutbah is a sign of one's understanding of the religion. So, prolong the prayer and shorten the khutbah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim. Shortening the khutbah and prolonging one's salah shows one's understanding of religion, for such a person is able to comprehend and express much in a few words.

Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Prophet's salah was of a moderate length and so was his khutbah." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.

'Abdullah ibn abi Aufa reports: "The salah of the Messenger of Allah was long and his khutba.i was short." This is related by an-Nasa'i with a sahih chain.

Jabir informs: "When the Prophet delivered the khutbah, his eyes became red, his voice rose, and his anger increased as if giving a warning to the enemy." This is related by Muslim and Ibn Majah.

An-Nawawi says: "It is preferred for the khutbah to be in an eloquent and proper Arabic, and it should be an organized speech that the people can understand. It should not be a speech, which is over the heads of the people, nor should it be shallow or contain foul language as that would defeat its purpose. Its words should be chosen carefully to make them attractive and meaningful."

Giving his views on the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The khutbah of the Prophet reinforced the fundamental articles of faith, like belief in Allah, the Exalted, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the meeting with Him. He would mention the paradise and the hellfire and what Allah, the Exalted, has promised to His devoted servants and the people who obey Him and what Allah has promised to His enemies and the miscreant. While listening to his khutbah, the hearts would be filled with belief in Allah, His oneness, and His majesty. His khutbahs were not like speeches of those who speak only of matters of concern of common folk, lamenting earthly life and frightening people of the approaching death. Such speeches cannot inspire faith in Allah or strengthen belief in His oneness or move people by allusion to His mighty works in history, nor can they kindle in hearts intense love for Allah, making the listeners look forward eagerly to the time they will meet Him! The people who hear such speeches gain no benefit at all, except that they will die and that their wealth will be distributed and their bodies will be turned to dust. Woe to such poets, what sort of faith is fostered by such sermons, and what sort of tawhid do they teach or knowledge disseminate? If we study the khutbahs of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and his companions, we find them embued with perspicuous guidance, tawhid, attributes of Allah, explaining the basic articles of the faith, inviting people to Allah, and drawing their attention to His providential care that makes Him so beloved to His slaves. His khutbahs referred to Allah's dealings with others in the past so as to wam his listeners against His wrath and exhort them to remember Him, thank Him and win His pleasure and love. Those who heard these khutbahs were inspired with the love of Allah and they looked forward eagerly to meeting their Lord. As time went by, the example of the Prophet was forgotten and other things prevailed. The main purpose of the khutbah was forgotten. The eloquent and nice words that moved the hearts became rare in speeches. The main thrust of the khutbah was neglected. The hearts were no longer touched and the basic purpose of the khutbah was lost."

Fiqh 2.141: The imam interrupting his khutbah for some reason

Abu Hurairah reports: "The Prophet was delivering a khutbah and al-Hassan and al-Hussain [his grandsons] came and they were wearing two red shirts and they were tripping while walking. The Prophet came down from the pulpit and picked them up and placed them in front of himself, and then he said: 'Allah and His Messenger have told the truth. Verily, your wealth and children are a trial. I looked to these two children walking and tripping, and I could not be patient, so I cut off my khutbah and went to pick them up."' This is related by the five.

Abu Rifah al-'Adwi says: "I went to the Prophet while he was delivering a khutbah, and I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, this strange man has come to ask about his religion as he does not know what his religion is.' The Prophet turned to me and left his speech, he came to me and he was given a wooden chair with four iron legs, and he started to teach me what Allah had taught him and then he went back to complete his khutbah." This is related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would interrupt his khutbah due to some reason, or to respond to a question from some of his companions.

Sometimes he would descend from the pulpit due to some need and then return and complete his khutbah, as he did when he picked up al-Hassan and al-Hussain. He took them and then returned with them to the pulpit. Sometimes he would interrupt his khutbah to say things to certain people, [e.g.,] 'Sit, so and so,' 'Pray, so and so.' [Sometimes] he ordered them to take care of certain things during his khutbah."

Fiqh 2.142: It is forbidden to speak during the khutbah

The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory to be silent during the khutbah, and one is not to indulge in conversation during the khutbah, not even if it is to order one to do some good or to stop some evil, and this rule applies whether or not the person sitting in the mosque can actually hear the khutbah.

Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever speaks in Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering the khutbah is like a donkey who is carrying books, and for those who tell him to be quiet, there is no [reward] for the Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad, ibn abi-Shaibah, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani. Ibn Hajar said in Bulugh alMaram: "There is no fault in its chain."

'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "There are three types of people who attend the Jumu'ah: one, a man who is present but speaks [during the speech], and that is his portion of the prayer; two, a man who is present and makes supplications - in his case, Allah may give him what he asks, if He wishes, or He may not give him what he asks, three, a person who is present and observes silence and does not step over the necks of the Muslims nor harm anyone - for him, there is expiation from that Jumu'ah until the next Jumu'ah plus an additional three days as Allah has said: 'He that does good shall have ten times as much to his credit.'" This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud with a good chain.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "If, during the Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering khutbah, you tell your companion to be quiet, then you have spoken needlessly." This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.

Abu ad-Darda' says: "The Prophet was upon the pulpit and was addressing the people and he recited a verse, and next to me was Ubayy ibn-Ka'b and I asked him: When was that verse revealed?' He refused to talk to me until the Messenger of Allah came down from the pulpit and then he said to me: 'You have nothing from your Jumu'ah, except your useless talk.' When the Prophet had finished, I went to him and informed him of what had happened, and he said: 'Ubayy has told the truth. If you hear your imam speaking, be quiet until he is finished.''' This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.

Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i are reported to have made a distinction, concerning this ruling, between one who can hear the speech and the one who cannot hear the speech, saying that speaking is forbidden for the former and not for the latter, although it is preferred for the latter also to be silent.

At-Tirmizhi records that Ahmad and Ishaq made an exception for replying to a salutation and responding to a sneeze while the imam is delivering the Friday khutbah. According to ash-Shaf'i: "If a person sneezes [during the khutbah] and someone says: 'May Allah bless you,' I wish I could have accomadated it since such a reply is a sunnah. In my view it is makruh that a person should greet someone with salam [while they are listening to the khutbah]. [What makes it worse is] that his salam is not returned, even though saying salam is a sunnah while responding to it is a fard.

Fiqh 2.143: Indulging in conversation when the khutbah is not being delivered, is permissible

Tha'labah ibn abi-Malik says: "We would be talking on Jumu'ah while 'Umar was sitting on the pulpit and when the call to salah was finished 'Umar would stand and no one would utter a word until he had completely finished both of his khutbahs. When the iqamah was made and 'Umar came down from the pulpit, the people would then speak." This is related by ash-Shaf'i in his Musnad.

Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that while the azhan was being made, 'Uthman ibn-'Affan would be sitting on the pulpit, apprising the people of their situation and the prices of some commodities.

Fiqh 2.143 a: Catching One Rak'ah or Less of the Jumu'ah

Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that if a person catches only one rak'ah of al-Jumu'ah, then that rak'ah will be valid and the person need only make up the one rak'ah that he misses.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches only one rak'ah of the salah and then adds to it the other one, his prayer will be complete." This is related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and ad-Daraqutni. In Bulugh al-Maram, Ibn Hajar says that its chain is sahih although Abu Hatim says that the strongest opinion is that it is mursal.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches one rak'ah of the prayer has indeed caught the whole prayer." This is related by the group.

Whoever catches less than one rak'ah of the salah has not caught the Jumu'ah and he is to pray four rak'at of the zuhr salah according to the majority of the scholars.

Ibn Mas'ud says: "Whoever catches one rak'ah from al-Jumu'ah is only to add another one to it. Whoever misses both rak'at is to pray four rak'at." This is related by at-Tabarani with a good chain.

Ibn 'Umar says: "If one catches from the Friday salah one rak'ah, then he is to add another one to it. If he catches only the sitting [at the end of the prayer, following the bowing], then he is to pray four [rak'at]." This is related by al-Baihaqi. Such is the opinion of the Shaf'i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools, and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan. Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf say that if one catches the tashahud with the imam, then he has caught al-Jumu'ah. He should pray two rak'at after the imam makes the taslim, and his Friday salah would be complete.

Fiqh 2.144: Offering the salah in a crowded area

Ahmad and al-Baihaqi relate from Sayyar that 'Umar was giving an address and said: "The Messenger of Allah built this mosque and we were with him [i.e., the emigrants and the helpers], and if it becomes very crowded, a person among you is to make the prostration on the back of his brother." When, he saw some people praying in the street, he said to them: "Pray in the mosque."

Fiqh 2.144 a: Nawaf'l before and after al-Jumu'ah

It is a sunnah to pray four rak'at or two rak'at after al-Jumu'ah: Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever is to pray after the Jumu'ah should pray four rak'at." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.

Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Ibn 'Umar says: "The Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house on the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by the group.

Ibn al-Qayyim says: "After the Prophet finished the Jumu'ah, he would enter his house and pray two rak'at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu'ah to pray four rak'at after it.

Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: 'When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four [rak'at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.' I say: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn 'Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at. Also, in the two Sahihs it is reported from ibn 'Umar that the Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house after the Friday salah."

If one prays four rak'at, then, according to some, he is to pray them all connected, while others hold that he is to pray two rak'at, make the taslim, followed by another two rak'at. It is preferred to pray them in one's house. If one prays them in the mosque, he should change his place of prayer after the Friday salah.

Concerning any sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam never offered any salah after the azhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from him. During the Prophet's time, there was only one azhan and that was made when the Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the azhan and then the Prophet would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and the Prophet would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet would have made a salah after the azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet could have done so. And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam, prayed in his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: 'Whoever goes out early and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for him...' That has been related from the Prophet's companions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak'at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reason most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with a specified number of rak'ah or time, before aljumu'ah, for there is nothing either in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.

Fiqh 2.145: Salatul Jumu'ah and Salatul 'Id occurring on the same day

If the day of 'Id occurs on Jumu'ah, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer an obligation upon those who performed the salatul 'Id.

Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed the salatul 'id and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah, saying: 'Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.'" This is related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it sahih.

Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu'ah." This is related by Abu Dawud.

It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes to perform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the 'id prayer. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going to perform the salatul Jumu'ah."

According to the Hanbali school, the zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who does not attend the salatul Jumu'ah because he has performed the 'id prayer. Nevertheless, it apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan Abu Dawud in which Ibn az-Zubair says: "'Id and Jumu'ah occurred on the same day so he joined them and prayed two rak'at at an early time, and did not add anything to it until 'asr.

Fiqh 2.147: Id prayers (Salatul 'Idain)

The prayers of the two 'ids was prescribed in the first year after the migration. It is a sunnah mu'kkadah as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed these prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.

Fiqh 2.147 a: Grooming for the two 'ids

It is preferred to make the ghusl, perfume one's self and don one's best attire on the occasions of the two 'ids.

Ja'far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every 'id. This is related by ash-Shaf'i and al-Baghawi.

Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to wear the best clothes we could find for the two 'ids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice the best animal we could find." This is related by al-Hakim and in its chain is Ishaq ibn Barzakh whom al-'Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two 'ids and Jumu'ah.

Fiqh 2.147 b: Eating on the two 'ids

One is to eat before going to the salah for 'idul fitr, (the end of Ramadan) but not do so on the occasion of the 'idul azha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For 'idul fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salatul 'id while for 'idul azha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the 'id prayers and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.

Anas reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he had eaten an odd number of dates." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari.

Buraidah reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day of breaking the fast ('idul fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idul azha) he would not eat until he had returned [from salah]." This is related by at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah, and also by Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."

In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the people were ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.

Ibn-Qudamah said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over the fact that one should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of the fast."

Fiqh 2.148: Going out to the musalla (place of prayer)

Salatul 'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so on) as the Prophet would pray the two 'ids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining.

Abu Hurairah reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophet led them in salatul 'id in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, and its chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says in at-Talkhis: "Its chain is weak," and azh-Zhahabi asserts: "This hadith is rejected."

Fiqh 2.148 a: Women and children going out to attend 'id prayer

Shari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the salatul 'idain. This includes married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.

Umm 'Atiyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims. The menstruating women would be separate from the others." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet would take his wives and daughters to the two 'ids. This is related by Ibn-Majah and al-Baihaqi.

Ibn 'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet on the day of breaking the fast or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and admonished them, reminded them of Allah, and ordered them to give charity." This is related by al-Bukhari.

Fiqh 2.148 b: Taking different routes to and from musalla

Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person to go to the salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation.

Jabir reports: "On the days of 'id, the Prophet would take different routes." This is related by al-Bukhari.

Abu Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salatul 'id, he would return through a different route." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi .

It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to the musalla. Bakr ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on 'idul azha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Medinah until we came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would return to our houses through the same valley." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, and by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable.

Fiqh 2.149: The time of 'Id prayers

The time for salatul 'id begins from the time the sun is three meters above the horizon until the sun reaches its meridian.

Ahmad ibn Hassan al-Bana' records that Jundub said: "The Prophet prayed the 'idul fitr prayer while the sun was [approximately] six meters above the horizon and the 'id of the sacrifice while the sun was three meters above the horizon."

Ash-Shaukani says: "That is the best of what has been related concerning the specific time of salatul 'idain and the hadith shows that it is preferred to hasten in praying salatul azha and to delay the salatul fitr."

Ibn Qudamah says: "It is a sunnah to pray salatul azha early in order to allow more time for the people to perform the sacrifice, and the salatul fitr is to be delayed in order to give people time to pay zakat al-Fitr. I know of no difference of opinion on this point."

Fiqh 2.149 a: The azhan and iqamah for salatul 'idain

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "When the Messenger of Allah went to the musalla (place of prayer), he would perform the salah without any azhan or iqamah and without saying 'as-salatu jami'ah' (prayer in congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that."

Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir both report that there was no azhan on the day of the breaking of the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Muslim records that 'Ata said: "Jabir informed me that there is no azhan for the 'id of breaking the fast, neither when the imam arrives nor afterward. And there is no iqamah or call of any kind."

Sa'd ibn abi-Waqqas reports: "The Prophet prayed salatul 'id without any azhan or iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would seperate them by sitting between them.' This is related by al-Bazzar.

Fiqh 2.150: The takbir during salatul 'idain

The 'id prayer consists of two rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir seven times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first rak'ah. During the second rak'ah, one makes takbir five times after the takbir which is customarily made for standing after the prostration. One is to raise one's hands during each pronouncement of the takbir. This is based on a report transmitted from 'Umar and his son Abdullah.

'Amr ibn Shu'aib reports from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet would make twelve takbirat during the 'id prayer, seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second. He did not pray before or after the 'id. This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Ahmad says: "I follow that."

Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni report that the Prophet said: "The takbirat during the ['id of breaking the fast are seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second, and the Qur'anic recital comes after them in both the rak'at." This is the strongest opinion and it is the opinion of the majority of the people of knowledge from among the companions, the successors, and the imams. Ibn Abdul-Barr commenting on the number of takbirat, says: "It has been related through many good chains that the Prophet made seven takbirat in the first rak'ah and five in the second. Such has been related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Aishah. Abu Waqid, and 'Amer ibn 'Auf al-Mazni. Nothing that has been related from him, either through a stonger or weaker chain, differs from that, and it was the first to be practiced."

As to the pause between takbirat, it is said that the Prophet would be silent for a short period of time between the takbirat, and nothing has been related from him concerning exactly what he said during that pause; however, at-Tabarani and al-Baihai relate, with a strong chain, that Ibn Mas'ud would praise and extol Allah, the Exalted, and make prayers upon the Prophet during such intervals. The same has been recorded from Huzhaifah and Abu Musa. Pronouncing the takbirat are a sunnah even though the salah is not invalidated if one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.

Ibn Qudamah says: "I know of no difference of opinion on that point." Ash-Shaukani states that the strongest opinion is that if one does not perform the takbirat out of forgetfulness, he is not to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.

Fiqh 2.151: Prayer before or after salatul 'id

It is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the 'id prayer. The Prophet never performed any such prayer, neither did his companions upon arrival at the musalla (prayer place).

Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Messenger of Allah went out to the site of the 'id prayer and prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'id prayer] without praying anything before or after it." This is related by the group.

It is reported that Ibn 'Umar did the same and he stated that this was the practice of the Prophet.

Al-Bukhari records that Ibn 'Abbas disliked that one should perform a prayer before salatul 'id. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar has stated in Fath al-Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed, unless it is at the times in which it is disliked to pray on any day.

Fiqh 2.151 a: For whom the performance of salatul 'id is valid

The 'id prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people in congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house, mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.

Fiqh 2.151 b: Whoever misses salatul 'id with the congregation may pray two rak'at

In Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: "If one misses salatul 'id he may pray two rak'at and the same is the case for the women or people in their houses or in the countryside. This is based on the Prophet's words: 'O Muslims, this is our festival."' Anas ibn Malik ordered his protege Ibn abi-'Utbah, [who lived] in a remote area, to gather his family and children and to pray [the 'id prayer] like the people in the city and with takbirat similar to theirs. 'Ikrimah said: "The people of the country should gather for the 'id and pray two rak'at as the imam does." 'Ata says: "If you miss the 'id [salah], pray two rak'at."

Fiqh 2.151 c: The khutbah of salatul 'id

The khutbah after salatul id is a sunnah and so is listening to it. Abu Sa'id says: "On the id of breaking the fast and of the sacrifice, the Prophet would go to the musalla (prayer place) and begin with the salah and when he finished, he would face the people while the people were sitting in rows, and he would admonish them, advise them, and exhort them [to do good deeds]. And if he wished to send off an army or order something, he would do so and then leave." Abu Sa'id then says: "The people continued to act likewise until I went out with Marwan, while he was the govenor of Medinah, for one of the two 'ids. When I arrived at the place of prayer, I found a minbar that was built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. When Marwan went to mount it before the prayer, I pulled him by his clothes. He pushed me away and gave the khutbah before the salah. I said to him: 'By Allah you have changed [the order].' He said: 'O Abu Sa'id...what you know is gone.' I said: 'By Allah, what I know is better than what I don't know.' He said: 'The people would not stay with us after the salah so we made the khutbah before the salah.'" This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

'Abdullah ibn as-Sa'ib said: "I prayed the 'id salah with the Messenger of Allah and when he finished the salah he said: 'We will be delivering a khutbah. Whoever wishes to stay for the khutbah may stay. Whoever would like to leave, may leave . ' " This is related by an-Nasa' i, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.

Whatever has been recorded suggests that there are two khutbahs for the 'id and the imam sits between them [i.e., like the khutbatul Jumu'ah]. Such reports are considered weak. An-Nawawi says: "There is nothing at all substantiated about there being more than one khutbah."

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would begin all of his khutbahs with the praise of Allah and there is no hadith from him that states that he began his 'id khutbahs with takbir.

Ibn Majah recorded in his Sunan from Sa'id, the mu'azhzhin of the Prophet, that the Prophet would say the takbir during his khutbahs and even more so during the 'id khutbahs. Still, this does not prove that he began his khutbah with it! The people differ over the beginning of the 'id and the khutbah for salatul istisqa' (prayer for rain). Some say that they are to begin with takbir. Some say that the khutbah for salatul istisqa' begins with praying for forgiveness while others say it begins with praises of Allah." Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah says: "That is correct as the Prophet said: 'Every affair that does not begin with the praise of Allah is deficient.' The Prophet began all of his speeches with praises of Allah. Concerning the statement of many jurists, i.e.. he began the 'prayer for rain' by asking forgiveness from Allah and the id speech with takbir, there is absolutely no proof for it in the Prophet's sunnah. In fact the sunnah contradicts that statement as he began all of his speeches with the praises of Allah."

Fiqh 2.152: Making up a missed 'id prayer

Abu 'Umair ibn Anas reports: "My Ansari uncles from among the companions of the Messenger of Allah said to me: 'The moon for the month of Shawwal was hidden from us and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at the end of the day, riders came and they bore witness to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam that they had seen the moon the previous night. The Prophet ordered the people to break their fasts and to go out to the site of the salatul 'id on the next day.'" This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah with a sahih chain. In this hadith there lies evidence for those who say that if the people miss salatul 'id due to some excuse, then they may go out and pray it the next day.

Fiqh 2.153: Playing, amusements, singing, and eating on the days of 'id

Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are permissible on the days of 'id.

Anas reports: "When the Prophet came to Medinah they had two days of sport and amusement. The Prophet said: "Allah, the Exalted, has exchanged these days for two days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and the day of sacrifice." This is related by an-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban with a sahih chain.

'Aishah says: "The Abyssinians were preforming in the mosque on the day of 'id. I looked over the Prophet's shoulders and he lowered them a little so I could see them until I was satisfied and left." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.

Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim also record that she said: "Abu Bakr entered upon us on the day of 'id and there were some slave girls who were recounting [in song the battle of] Bu'ath in which many of the brave of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed. Abu Bakr said: 'Slaves of Allah, you play the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times. The Prophet said to him: 'O Abu Bakr, every people have a festival and this is our festival."' In al-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah, entered the house and I had two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. The Prophet lied down on the bed and turned his face to the other direction. Abu Bakr entered and spoke harshly to me, 'Musical instruments of the Satan in the presence of the Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah turned his face to him and said: 'Leave them.' When Abu Bakr became inattentive I signaled to the girls to leave. It was the day of 'id and the Africans were performing with their shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet asked if I would like to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At this the Prophet made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He was saying: 'Carry on, O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet asked: 'Is that enough for you?' I replied: "yes," so he said: 'Leave [then].'"

Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari, "Ibn as-Siraj related from Abu az-Zinad on the authority of 'Urwah from 'Aishah that the Prophet said that day: 'Let the Jews of Medinah know that our religion is spacious [and has room for relaxation] and I have been sent with an easy and straight forward religion. "'

Ahmad and Muslim record from Nubaishah that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The days of tashriq (i.e., the days in which the 'id is celebrated) are days of eating and drinking [non alcoholic drinks] and of remembering Allah, the Exalted."

Fiqh 2.154: The excellence of good deeds in the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah

Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these days [meaning the ten days of Zhul-Hijjah]." The companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, not even jihad in the way of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad, save for the man who puts his life and wealth in danger [for Allah's sake] and returns with neither of them." This is related by the group save Muslim and an-Nasa'i.

Ahmad and at-Tabarani record from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: "There is no day more honorable in Allah's sight and no acts more beloved therein to Allah than those in these ten days. So say tahlil ["There is no God but Allah"], takbir [Allah is the greatest] and tahmid ["All praise is due to Allah"] a lot [on those days]."

Ibn 'Abbas says about the 'ayah, "Remember Allah during the well known days," that it refers to the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah. This is related by al-Bukhari. Sa'id ibn Jubair would push himself very hard [to do good deeds] during these ten days.

Al-Auza'i says: "It has reached me that a deed on one of the ten days is similar to fighting in the way of Allah, fasting during its days and guarding during its nights, except for him who becomes a martyr." As to its source, he adds: "A man from the tribe of Bani Makhzum related that to me from the Prophet."

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "There are no days more loved to Allah for you to worship Him therein than the ten days of ZhulHijja. Fasting any day during it is equivalent to fasting one year and to offer salatul tahajjud (late-night prayer) during one of its nights is like performing the late night prayer on the night of power. [i.e., Lailatul Qadr]." This is related by at-Tirmizhi, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.

Fiqh 2.154 a: Congratulating one another on the days of 'id

It is commendable to congratulate one another on the days of 'id.

Jabir ibn Nafir reports: "When the companions of the Prophet met each other on the day of 'id, they would say to each other, 'taqabbal minna wa minka [May Allah] accept it from us and you.'" Ibn Hajar said that its chain is hasan.

Fiqh 2.154 b: Takbirat during the days of 'id

It is a sunnah to pronounce the takbirat on 'id days. Concerning the 'id of breaking the fast, Allah says "you should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify Allah [i.e., say takbirat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks." Concerning the 'id of the sacrifice, Allah says: "that you may remember Allah during the well known days;" and: "He has made them subject to you, that you may glorify Allah for His guidance to you. The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbirat during the 'id of breaking the fast is from the time one goes to the 'id prayer until the khutbah begins. Weak hadith have been recorded stating this, but there are also authentic reports from Ibn 'Umar and other companions that they did so. Al-Hakim says: "This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il hadith. Malik, Ahmad, Ishaq, and Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice] ."

Some say that the takbirat are from the night before the 'id, when the moon is seen, until the person goes to the musalla and the imam arrives. The time for the takbirat during the 'id of the sacrifice is from the day of 'Arafah until the time of the 'asr on the thirteenth of Zhul-Hijjah.

Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "None of that has been confirmed from the Prophet. The most authentic report from the companions is that 'Ali and Ibn Mas'ud would make the takbirat from the day of 'Arafah to the 'asr of the last day of Mina. Ibn al-Munzhir and others reported it. AshShaf'i, Ahamd, Abu Yusuf, and Muhammad follow that report and it is also the view of 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas."

There is no specific time for the takbirat during the days of tashriq (three days after 'idul azha). In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbirat during every moment of those days.

Al-Bukhari recorded: "During 'Umar's stay at Mina, he would say takbirat in his tent [so loud] that the people in the mosque would hear it and then they would start doing it also and the people in the market place would do the same and all of Mina would resound with the takbirat. Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbirat, during those days of Mina, after the prayers and while on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking during all of those days. Maimuna would say the takbirat on the day of sacrifice. The women used to say takbirat behind Abban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz along with the men in the mosque during the days of tashriq." Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar said: "These reports show that the takbirat are made during all the times of these days, after salah and all other times. Some say the takbirat are made only after the salah, and some say they are to be made only after the fard prayers and not after nawafl, others declare them to be for men and not for women, while some say that they are only to be said in congregations and not individually, while others reserve them only for those who perform the salah on time and not for those who are making up a missed prayer, and some say only for residents and not travellers, whereas others think they are only for the people of the city and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-Bukhari is of the opinion that it is for all people and the reports that he has transmitted support his opinion."

These takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that which has been recorded with a sahih chain by 'Abdurrazaq from Salman, who said: "They made takbirat with: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar kabeera."' From 'Umar and ibn Mas'ud the following is related: "Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha illallah. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd." Translation: Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. All praise belongs to Allah.