Fiqh 3.120: Those who must make up the missed days
The scholars agree that it is obligatory for menstruating women and women
with postchildbirth bleeding to break the fast and to make up the missed
days later on. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that 'Aishah said: "When
we would have our menses during the lifetime of the Prophet, we were ordered
to make up the days of fasting that we had missed but were not ordered
to make up the prayers that we had missed.
Fiqh 3.120 a: The Forbidden Days to Fast, the days of 'id
All scholars agree that such a fast is prohibited. It does not matter
if the fast is obligatory or voluntary. 'Umar testifies: "The Messenger
of Allah has forbidden fasting on these two days. Concerning the 'id of
breaking the fast, it is for you to break your fast [of Ramadan]. On the
'id of sacrifice, you should eat from what you sacrifice." This is
related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, atTirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.
Fiqh 3.120 b: The Forbidden Days to Fast, the days of tashreeq (three
days following the 'Id al-Azha)
It is not permissible to fast during the three days following the 'Id
al-Azha. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
be peace, sent 'Abdullah ibn Huzhaqah to announce at Mina: "You are
not to fast these days. They are days of eating and drinking and remembering
Allah." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
sent a person to announce: "Do not fast on these days, as they are
days of eating, drinking and rejoicing with one's family." At-Tabarani
related it in al-'Awsat.
The Shaf'iyyah allow fasting on the days of tashreeq if there is some
reason for the fasting - that is, if it is due to an oath, for expiation,
or for making up a missed day of Ramadan. Those fasts that have no special
reason behind them are not allowed, and there is no disagreement on this
point. The Shaf'iyyah applied the same reasoning that they used in saying
that prayers that are performed for a specific reason are allowed to be
performed during the prohibited times of prayer [for example, the prayer
of salutation to the mosque, and so on].
Fiqh 3.121: The Forbidden Days to Fast, prohibited to single out Friday
as a day of fasting
The day of Friday is a kind of weekly 'id for Muslims and, therefore,
it is prohibited to fast on that day. Most scholars say that this prohibition
is one of dislike,9 not one of complete forbiddance.
If one fasts on the day before or after it, or if it is a day that one
customarily fasts on (for example, the 13th, 14th, or 15th of the month),
or if it is the day of 'Arafah or 'Ashurah, then it is not disliked to
fast on such a Friday.
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah entered the room
of Juwairiyah bint al-Harith while she was fasting on a Friday. He asked
her: "Did you fast yesterday?" She answered, "No."
He said: "Do you plan to fast tomorrow?" She answered, "No."
Therefore he said: "Then break your fast." This is related by
Ahmad and an-Nasa'i with a good chain.
'Amr al-'Ashari reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Verily,
Friday is an 'id for you, so do not fast on it unless you fast the day
before or after it." This is related by al-Bazzar with a good chain.
'Ali counseled: "He who wants to [fast] voluntarily should fast
on Thursday instead of Friday, for Friday is a day of eating, drinking,
and remembrance." This is related by Ibn Abu Shaibah with a good
In the two Sahih (those of al-Bukhari and Muslim), Jabir reported that
the Prophet said: "Do not fast on Friday unless you fast on it together
with the day before or the day after." Muslim's version states: "Do
not exclusively choose the night of Friday [Thursday night in English]
as a special night for performing the night prayers. Also, do not exclusively
choose Friday as a day of fasting unless it occurs on a day that you regularly
Fiqh 3.122: The Forbidden Days to Fast, prohibited to single out Saturday
as a day of fasting
Busr as-Salmi related from his sister as-Sama' that the Messenger of
Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Do not fast on Saturdays unless
it is an obligatory fast. [You should not fast] even if you do not find
anything [to eat] save some grape peelings or a branch of a tree to chew
This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah,
and al-Hakim. Al-Hakim said that it is sahih according to the conditions
of Muslim, while at-Tirmizhi called it hassan. AtTirmizhi said that what
is disliked here is for a person to exclusively choose Saturday as a day
of fasting, as it is the day that the Jews honor.
In contradiction with the preceding report, Umm Salamah claims: "The
Prophet used to fast more often on Saturdays and Sundays than on the other
days. He would say: 'They are the 'ids of the polytheists, and I love
to differ from them.' " This is related by Ahmad, al-Baihaqi, al-Hakim,
and Ibn Khuzaimah who called it sahih.
The Hanafiyyah, Shaf'iyyah, and Hanbaliyyah say it is disliked to fast
on Saturday by itself due to the preceding evidence. Malik differs from
them, but the hadith is proof against him.
Fiqh 3.122 a: The Forbidden Days to Fast, on the "day of doubt"
'Ammar ibn Yasir said: "Whoever fasts the 'day of doubt has disobeyed
Abu alQasim [the Prophet]." This is related by an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmizhi,
Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.
Of its status, at-Tirmizhi says: "It is a hassan sahih hadith. Most
of the knowledgeable people act in accordance with it. It is the opinion
of Sufyan ath-Thauri, Malik ibn Anas, 'Abdullah ibn alMubarak, ash-Shaf'i,
Ahmad, and Ishaq. They all hate that one fasts on a 'day of doubt.' Most
of them believe that if one fasts on such a day and it turns out to be
Ramadan, then that day still has to be made up later. If such a day occurs
during one's regular fasting period, then it is permissible to fast on
such a day."
As related by "the group," Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger
of Allah said: "Do not precede Ramadan by fasting the day or two
before it unless it is a day on which the person usually fasts."
About this hadith, at-Tirmizhi says: "The hadith is hassan sahih
and the scholars act in accordance with it. They dislike that a person
should hasten Ramadan by fasting on the day before it. If a person usually
fasts on a day and 'the day of doubt' occurs on that day, then there is
no problem with his fasting on that day, in their opinion."
Fiqh 3.123: The Forbidden Days to Fast, every day of the year
It is forbidden to do so because there are certain days of the year on
which one is not allowed to fast. The Messenger of Allah said: "There
is no [reward for] fasting for the one who perpetually fasts." This
is related by Ahrnad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
If one breaks his fast during the days of 'id and the days of tashreeq,
then his perpetual fasting would no longer be considered disliked. In
his comments on this issue, at-Tirmizhi says: "A group of scholars
dislike fasting every day if it includes the 'ids ['id al-Fitr, 'id al-Azha]
and the days of tashreeq. If one breaks his fast on those days, his action
is no longer disliked, as he is no longer fasting the whole year."
The scholars are Malik, ash-Shaf'i, Ahrnad, and Ishaq.
The Prophet approved of Hamzah al-Aslami's nurnerous fasts when he told
him: "Fast if you wish and break your fast if you wish." This
hadith was mentioned earlier.
Fiqh 3.123 a: The Forbidden Days to Fast, woman to fast while her husband
is present except with his permission
The Messenger of Allah forbade a woman to fast if her husband was present
until he gave her his perrnission to do so. Abu Hurairah reported that
the Prophet said: "A woman is not to fast [even] for one day while
her husband is present except with his permission, unless it is during
Ramadan." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim. The scholars
have interpreted this prohibition as one of forbiddance, and they allow
the husband to end his wife's fasting if she fasted without his perrnission
and he seeks his right [to sex] from her. This is also true, obviously,
for days other than those of Ramadan in which case she does not need her
husband's permission. Similarly, if she fasted without his permission
because he was not present, he has the right to end her fast when he retums.
If the husband is sick or incapable of intercourse, it is permissible
for the woman to fast without his perrnission--that is, it is similar
to the case of where the husband is not present.
Fiqh 3.124: The Forbidden Days to Fast, consecutive days without eating
at all [al-wisal]
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
said: "Do not perforrn al-wisal." He said that three times and
the people said to him: "But you perform al-wisal, O Messenger of
Allah!" He said: "You are not like me in that matter. I spend
the night in such a state that Allah feeds me and gives me to drink..
Devote yourselves to the deeds which you can perform." This is related
by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
The scholars say this prohibition implies that the act is disliked. Ahmad
and Ishaq say that it is allowed to fast until the time of the pre-dawn
meal as long as it is not a hardship on the one fasting. This opinion
is based on what al-Bukhari recorded on the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri:
"The Messenger of Allah said: 'Do not make al-wisal. If one of you
insists on making al-wisal, he may continue his fast [after sunset] until
the time of the pre-dawn
Fiqh 3.124 a: Voluntary Fasts
The Prophet has exhorted us to fast during the following days: six days
of the month of Shawwal, first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah for those not performing
the pilgrimage, month of Muharram.
Fiqh 3.124 b: Voluntary Fasts, six days of the month of Shawwal
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said:
"Whoever fasts during the month of Ramadan and then follows it with
six days of Shawwal will be [rewarded] as if he had fasted the entire
year." This is related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari
According to Ahmad, one may fast on these days consecutively or nonconsecutively,
as neither practice is preferred over the other. Hanafiyyah and Shaf'iyyah
maintain that it is preferable to fast on consecutive days after the 'id.
Fiqh 3.124 c: Voluntary FastsThe first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah, especially
the day of Arafah, for those who are not performing the pilgrimage
1 Abu Qatadah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Fasting
on the day of 'Arafah is an expiation for two years, the year preceding
it and the year following it. Fasting the day of 'Ashurah is an expiation
for the year preceding it." This is related by "the group,"
except for al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.
2 Hafsah reported: "There are five things that the Prophet
never abandoned: fasting the day of 'Ashurah, fasting the [first] ten
[days of Zhul-Hijjah], fasting three days of every month and praying two
rak'ah before the dawn prayer." This is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.
3 'Uqbah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "The
day of 'Arafah, the day of sacrifice, and the days of tashreeq are 'ids
for us--the people of Islam--and they are days of eating and drinking."
This is related by "the five," except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi
grades it sahih.
4 Abu Hurairah stated: "The Messenger of Allah forbade fasting
on the day of 'Arafah for one who is actually at 'Arafah." This is
related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah.
At-Tirmizhi comments: "The scholars prefer that the day of 'Arafah
be fasted unless one is actually at 'Arafah."
5 Umm al-Fadl said: "The people were in doubt over whether
or not the Prophet was fasting on the day of 'Arafah. I sent him some
milk, and he drank it while he was delivering an address to the people
at 'Arafah." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
sent a person to announce: "Do not fast on these days, as they are
days of eating, drinking and rejoicing with one's family." At-Tabarani
related it in al-'Awsat.
Fiqh 3.125: Voluntary Fasts, Fasting during the month of Muharram, especially
the day of 'Ashurah and the days immediately preceding and following it
Abu Hurairah reported: "I asked the Prophet: 'Which prayer is the
best after the obligatory prayers?' He said: 'Prayer during the middle
of the night.' I asked: 'Which fast is the best after the fast of Rarnadan?'
He said, 'The month of Allah that you call Muharram.' " This is related
by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
Mu'awiyyah ibn Abu Sufyan reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah
say: "Concerning the day of 'Ashurah, it is not obligatory upon you
to fast on it as I do. Whoever wishes may fast and whoever does not wish
to is not obliged to do so." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Aishah stated: "The tribe of Quraish used to fast on the day of
'Ashurah in the days before Islam, as did the Prophet. When he came to
Madinah, he still fasted on it and ordered the people to do likewise.
Then, when fasting during the month of Ramadan becam obligatory, he said:
'Whoever wishes may fast ['Ashurah] and whoever wishes may leave it."
This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas reported: "The Prophet came to Madinah and found the
Jews fasting on the day of 'Ashurah. He said to them: 'What is this fast?'
They said: 'A great day. Allah saved Moses and the tribes of Israel from
their enemies on this day and therefore, Moses fasted on this day.' The
Prophet said: 'We have more of a right to Moses than you,' so he fasted
on that day also and ordered the people to fast on that day." This
is recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
According to al-Bukhari and Muslim, Musa al-Ash'ari reported: "The
Jews would honor the day of 'Ashurah as an 'id. The Prophet said: 'You
[Muslims] are to fast on it.'"
Ibn 'Abbas reported: "The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of
'Ashurah and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said: 'O Messenger
of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor.' The Prophet
said, 'When the following year comes--Allah willing--we shall fast on
the ninth.' The death of the Prophet came before the following year."
This is recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud. In one version the wording is:
"If I remain until next year, we shall fast the ninth," meaning,
the tenth. This is related by Muslim and Abu Dawud.
The scholars have mentioned that the fast of 'Ashurah is of three levels:
1 fasting three days--that is, on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of Muharram;
2 fasting on the 9th and 10th; and
3 fasting only on the 10th.
Fiqh 3.126: Being generous in providing household provisions on the
day of 'Arafah
Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever is generous
to himself and to his family on the day of 'Ashurah will have Allah's
generosity bestowed on him for the rest of the year." This is related
by al-Baihaqi in ash-Shu'ab and by Ibn 'Abdul-Barr. The hadith has other
chains, but they are all weak; however, strung together these chains strengthen
the rank of the hadith, as as-Sakhawi said.
Fiqh 3.127: Fasting most of the month of Sha'ban (the month preceding
The Prophet would fast most of the month of Sha'ban. 'Aishah said: "I
never saw the Messenger of Allah fast a complete month save for Ramadan,
and I have never seen him fast more in a month than he did in Sha'ban."
This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Usamah ibn Zaid inquired: "O Messenger of Allah, I never find you
fasting in any month like you do during the month of Sha'ban." The
Prophet responded: "That is a month the people neglect. It comes
between Rajab and Ramadan. It is a month in which the deeds are raised
to the Lord of the Worlds. I love that my deeds be raised while I am fasting."
This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih.
Some people fast on the 15th of Sha'ban in particular, thinking that
that day contains more virtues than the other days. This is an unsubstantiated
Fiqh 3.127 a: Fasting during the "forbidden" months
The "forbidden" months (during which killing is forbidden)
are Zhul-Qidah, ZhulHijjah, Muharram, and Rajab. It is preferred to fast
a lot during these months.
A man from Bahila came to the Prophet and said: "O Messenger of
Allah, I am the man who came to you during the first year." The Prophet,
upon whom be peace, said: "What has changed you? You used to be much
more handsome!" He answered: "I did not eat save during the
night since I left you." The Messenger of Allah asked: "Why
did you punish yourself? Fast during the month of patience [that is, Ramadan]
and then one day of every month." The man said: "Add something
to that for me, for I have more strength than that." The Prophet
responded: "Fast two days [a month]." The man said: "Add
more for me." The Prophet said three times: "Fast from the forbidden
months, then leave fasting." He pointed with three of his fingers
by clenching them and releasing them. This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud,
Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi with a good chain.
Fasting during Rajab contains no more virtue than during any other month.
There is no sound report from the sunnah that states that it has a special
reward. All that has been related concerning it is not strong enough to
be used as a proof. Ibn Hajr says: "There is no authentic hadith
related to its virtues, not fasting during it or on certain days of it,
nor concerning exclusively making night prayers during that month."
Fiqh 3.128: Fasting Mondays and Thursdays
Abu Hurairah reported that the most the Prophet would fast would be Monday
and Thursday. He was asked about that and he said: "The actions are
presented on every Monday and Thursday. Allah forgives every Muslim or
every believer, except for those who are boycotting each other. He says
[about them]: 'Leave them.' " This is related by Ahmad with a sahih
chain. It is recorded in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet, when asked about
fasting on Monday, said: "That is the day on which I was born and
the day on which I received revelations."
Fiqh 3.128 a: Fasting three days of every month
Abu Zharr al-Ghafari reported: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us
to fast for three days of every month--that is, on the days of the full
moon (the 13th, 14th, and 15th of the lunar month). And he said: 'It is
like fasting the whole year.' " This is related by an-Nasa'i and
by Ibn Hibban, who called it sahih.
It is related that the Prophet would fast on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday
of one month and on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of the next month.
He would also fast for three days at the beginning of the month, or on
the first Thursday and the next two Mondays of the month.
Fiqh 3.128 b: Fasting one day and not fasting the next
Abu Salama ibn 'Abdurrahman reported from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the
Prophet, upon whom be peace, said to him: 'I have been informed that you
stay up in prayer during the night and fast during the day. 'Abdullah
answered: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." The Prophet said: "Fast
and do not fast, pray and sleep, for your body, your wife, and your guests
have a right upon you. It is sufficient for you to fast three days a month."
'Abdullah said: "I wanted to be stricter on myself and I said: "O
Messenger of Allah, I have the strength to do more." The Prophet
said: "Then fast three days a week." 'Abdullah said: "I
have the strength to do more!" The Prophet said: "Fast the fast
of the Prophet David and do not do more than that!" 'Abdullah inquired:
"And what was the fast of David?" The Prophet replied: "He
would fast one day and then not fast the next." This is recorded
by Ahmad and others.
Ahmad also related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Prophet said: "The
fast most loved by Allah is the fast of David, and the most loved prayer
is the prayer of David. He would sleep half the night, pray for a third
of the night, and then sleep during the last sixth of the night. He would
also fast one day and then eat on the next."
Fiqh 3.129: It is permissible for one who is performing a voluntary
fast to break his fast
Umm Hani reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, entered her room
during the day of the conquest of Makkah. He was offered something to
drink and he drank from it. Then he offered it to Umm Hani and she said:
"I am fasting." The Prophet said: "The one who is fasting
voluntarily is in charge of himself. If you wish you may fast and if you
wish you may break your fast." This is recounted by Ahmad, ad-Daraqutni,
and alBaihaqi. Al-Hakim also related it and said that its chain is sahih.
The version he recorded states: "And if one wishes he may fast and
if he wishes he may break his fast."
Abu Juhaifah said: "The Prophet established the bond of brotherhood
between Salman and Abu ad-Darda. Once, Salman visited Abu ad-Darda and
saw Umm ad-Darda wearing very plain clothes. He said to her: 'What's happening
to you?' She said: 'Your brother Abu ad-Darda has no need in this world.'
When Abu adDarda came, he prepared some food for Salman and said: 'Eat,
for I am fasting.' Salman said: 'I shall not eat until you eat.' So he
ate. When it was night, Abu ad-Darda got up to pray and Salman said, 'Sleep,'
and he did so. Toward the end of the night Salman woke Abu ad-Darda and
said, Pray now.' And they prayed. Salman told him: 'Your Lord has a right
upon you, you have a right upon yourself, and so does your wife. Give
each one its due right.' Abu adDarda went to the Prophet and told him
what Salman had said. The Prophet said: 'Salman has said the truth.' "
This is related by al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said: "I prepared food for the Prophet. He came
to me with some of his companions. When the food was laid out, one of
the men said: 'I am fasting.' The Messenger of Allah said: 'Your brother
has invited you and incurred expenses in your behalf.' Then he asked [him],
Break your fast and fast another day in its place if you wish.' "
This is related by al-Baihaqi. Al-Hafizh says it has a hassan chain.
Most scholars maintain that one who is performing a voluntary fast can
break it. It is, however, preferred to make up that day later on. The
preceding view is clear and authentic hadith are support for that position.
Fiqh 3.130: Fasting, eating a pre-dawn meal
All Muslims agree that it is preferred to eat a pre-dawn meal and that
there is no sin upon one who does not do so. Anas reported that the Messenger
of Allah said: "Eat a pre-dawn meal, for there are blessings in it."
This is related by alBukhari and Muslim.
Al-Miqdam ibn Madyakrib reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said: "You should eat this pre-dawn meal for it is a blessed nourishment."
This is related by an-Nasa'i with a good chain. The reason why it is a
blessing is that it strengthens the fasting person, makes him more energetic,
and makes the fast easier for him.
Fiqh 3.130 a: Fasting, what would fulfill the sunnah of eating a pre-dawn
The sunnah would be fulfilled by eating a small or large quantity of
food, or even just by drinking a sip of water. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported
that the Messenger of Allah said: "The pre-dawn meal is blessed,
so do not neglect it even if you only take a sip of water. Verily, Allah
and the angels pray for those who have pre-dawn meals." This is related
Fiqh 3.130 b: Fasting, the time for the pre-dawn meal
The time for the pre-dawn meal is between the middle of the night and
dawn. It is considered best to delay it (that is, as close to dawn a possible).
Zaid ibn Thabit reported: "We ate the pre-dawn meal with the Messenger
of Allah and then we got up for the prayer. He was asked: 'What was the
amount of time between the two?' He responded: '[The time it would take
to recite] fifty verses.' " This is recounted by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Amr ibn Maimun adds: "The companions of Muhammad, upon whom be
peace, would be the first to break the fast and the last to eat their
pre-dawn meals." This is recorded by al-Baihaqi with a sahih chain.
Abu Zharr al-Ghafari related that the Prophet said: "My nation will
always retain some goodness as long as they hasten breaking the fast and
delay eating the pre-dawn meal." This hadith has in its chain one
Sulaim ibn Abu Uthman who is unknown.
Fiqh 3.131: Fasting, doubt concerning the time of fajr
If one is in doubt whether or not the time of fajr has begun or not,
he may continue to eat and drink until he is certain that it is fajr.
He should not base his action on doubt or suspicion. Allah has made the
signs for beginning the daily fast very clear and unambiguous. Allah enjoins
(upon the believers) in the Qur'an: "Eat and drink until the white
thread of the dawn becomes distinct from the black thread [of the night]."
A man said to Ibn 'Abbas: "I eat until I suspect that its time has
ended so I stop. Ibn 'Abbas observed: "Continue to eat until you
are certain about the time." Abu Dawud reported that Ahmad ibn Hanbal
said: "If you have some doubt about fajr, eat until you are sure
dawn has come." This is the opinion of Ibn 'Abbas, 'Ata, al'Auza'i,
An-Nawawi informs that: "The followers of ash-Shafai agree that
one may eat if he is uncertain whether dawn has come or not."
Fiqh 3.131 a: Hastening in breaking the fast
It is preferred for the fasting person to hasten in breaking the fast
when the sun has set. Sahl ibn Sad reported that the Prophet said: "The
people will always be with the good as long as they hasten in breaking
the fast." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
The fast should be broken with an odd number of dates or, if that is
not available, with some water. Anas reported: "The Messenger of
Allah would break his fast with ripe dates before he would pray. If those
were not available, he would eat dried dates. If those were not available,
he would drink some water." This hadith is related by Abu Dawud and
by al-Hakim, who called it sahih, and by at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan.
Sulaiman ibn 'Amr reported that the Prophet said: "If one of you
is fasting, he should break his fast with dates. If dates are not available,
then with water, for water is purifying." This is related by Ahmad
and by at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan sahih.
The preceding hadith also shows that it is preferred to break the fast
in the above manner before praying. After the prayer, the person may continue
to eat, but if the evening meal is ready, one may begin with that. Anas
reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "If the food is already
presented, eat before the sunset prayer and do not eat your meals in haste."
This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Fiqh 3.132: Supplications while breaking the fast and while fasting
Ibn Majah related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas that the Prophet,
upon whom be peace, said: "A fasting person, upon breaking his fast,
has a supplication that will not be rejected. When 'Abdullah broke his
fast he would say: "O Allah, I ask of You, by Your mercy that encompasses
everything, to forgive me."
It is confirmed that the Prophet would say: The thirst has gone, the
glands are wet and, Allah willing, the reward is confirmed. In mursal
form, it is reported that he would say: "O Allah, for You I have
fasted and with Your provisions do I break my fast."
At-Tirmizhi recorded, with a good chain, that the Prophet said: "Three
people will not have their supplications rejected: a fasting person until
he breaks his fast, a just ruler, and an oppressed person."
Fiqh 3.132 a: Refraining from performing any actions that do not befit
Fasting is a type of worship that draws one closer to Allah. Allah has
prescribed it to purify the soul and to train it in good deeds. The fasting
person must be on guard against any act that may cause him to lose the
benefits of his fast. Thus, his fast will increase his God-consciousness,
and Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, fasting is prescribed
for you as it was prescribed for those before you so perchance you may
attain God consciousness."
Fasting is not just refraining from eating and drinking, but it is also
refraining from everything else that Allah has forbidden. Abu Hurairah
reported that the Prophet said: "Fasting is not [abstaining] from
eating and drinking only, but also from vain speech and foul language.
If one of you is being cursed or annoyed, he should say: "I am fasting,
I am fasting." This is related by Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, and
al-Hakim. The latter said that it is sahih according to Muslim's criterion.
Abu Hurairah also reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said:
"Allah does not need the fast of one who does not abandon false speech
or acting according to his false speech." This is related by the
group, except for Muslim.
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet said: "Perhaps a fasting
person will get nothing from his fast save hunger, and perhaps the one
who stands to pray at night will get nothing from his standing except
sleeplessness." This is related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim.
The latter said that it is sahih according to alBukhari's criterion.
Fiqh 3.133: Fasting, using the tooth stick [brush]
It is preferred for the fasting person to use a tooth stick or a brush.
There is no difference if he uses it at the beginning or the ending of
the day. At-Tirmizhi affirms that: "Ash-Shafhi did not see anything
wrong with using a tooth stick [brush] during the beginning or the ending
of the day." The Prophet would use his tooth stick [brush] while
Fiqh 3.133 a: Fasting, being generous and studying the Qur'an
Being generous and studying the Qur'an is recommended during any time,
but it is especially stressed during the month of Ramadan. Al-Bukhari
recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said: "The Prophet was the most generous
of people, but he would be his most generous during Ramadan when he would
meet with [the angel] Gabriel. He would meet with him every night and
recite the Qur'an. When Gabriel met him, he used to be more generous than
a fast wind."
Fiqh 3.133 b: Fasting, striving to perform as many acts of worship as
possible during the last ten days of Ramadan
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from 'Aishah that during the last ten days
of Ramadan, the Messenger of Allah would wake his wives up during the
night and then remain apart from them (that is, being busy in acts of
worship). A version in Muslim states: "He would strive [to do acts
of worship] during the last ten days of Ramadan more than he would at
any other time." At-Tirmizhi also recorded this from 'Ali.
Fiqh 3.133 c: Fasting, Acts That are Permissible During the Fast
The following acts are permissible for the fasting person:
1 Pouring water over one's self and submersing one's self in water:
Abu Bakr ibn 'Abdurrahman reported from a number of companions that they
had seen Allah's Messenger pour water over his head while he was fasting
due to thirst or extreme heat. This is related by Ahmad, Malik, and Abu
Dawud with a sahih chain.
In the two Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim, it is related from 'Aishah
that the Prophet would rise in the morning on a fasting day and then would
perform ghusl (a complete bath). If during the bath some water is swallowed
unintentionally, the fast is still valid.
Fiqh 3.134: Fasting, applying kohl or eyedrops or anything else to the
These acts are all permissible, even if some taste from it finds its
way to the throat, as the eyes are not a passageway to the stomach. Anas
reported that he would apply kohl while he was fasting. This is the opinion
of the Shaf'iyyah. Ibn al-Munzhir records the same opinion from 'Ata,
al-Hassan, an-Nakha'i, al-Au~a'i, Abu Hanifah, Abu Thaur, and Dawud. It
is related from the following companions: Ibn 'Umar, Anas, and Ibn Abu
'Aufa. According to atTirmizhi, nothing authentic has been related from
the Prophet concerning this question.
Fiqh 3.134 a: Fasting, kissing for one who has the ability to control
It is confirmed that 'Aishah said: "The Prophet would kiss and embrace
while he was fasting, for he had the most control of all of you over his
desires." 'Umar said: "I was excited one time and I kissed [my
wife] while I was fasting. I went to the Prophet and said: 'Today I committed
a horrendous act--I kissed while I was fasting.' The Prophet asked: 'What
do you think of rinsing with water while fasting?' I said: 'There is nothing
wrong with that.' The Prophet said: 'Then what is the question about?'"
Ibn al-Munzhir says: " 'Umar, Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, 'Aishah,
'Ata, ash-Sha'bi, al-Hassan, Ahmad, and Ishaq permit kissing. The Hanafiyyah
and Shaf'iyyah say that it is disliked if it incites one's desires. If
it does not do so, it is not disliked although it is better to avoid it."
There is no difference between an old man or a young man in this matter.
The question is whether or not the kiss excites one's desires. If it does,
it is disliked. If it does not, it is not disliked although it is best
to avoid it. It does not matter if the kiss was on the cheek or on the
lips, and so on. Touching with the hand or embracing follow the same ruling
Fiqh 3.134 b: Fasting, any type of injection
Injections do not break the fast whether they are for feeding the person
or just medicine. It does not matter if the injection was intraveinous
or underneath the skin. It also does not matter if what was injected reaches
the stomach, as it does not reach the stomach through the customary manner
(that food does).
Fiqh 3.135: Fasting, cupping to drain blood
The Prophet, upon whom be peace, was cupped while he was fasting. However,
if doing this weakens the fasting person, it is disliked. Thabit al-Bunani
asked Anas: "Did you dislike cupping for a fasting person during
the time of the Prophet?" He answered: "No [we did not], unless
it made someone weak." This is related by al-Bukhari and others.
Vivisection follows the same ruling as cupping.
Fiqh 3.135 a: Fasting, rinsing the mouth and nose
These acts are allowed in general, but it is disliked to exaggerate (that
is, use a lot of water and put the water deep into the mouth or nose while
fasting). Laqit ibn Sabra reported that the Prophet said: "Exaggerate
when rinsing your nose unless you are fasting." This is related by
an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi called it
Scholars dislike using nose drops (that is, applying medicine through
the nose) while one is fasting, for they are of the opinion that it breaks
the fast. There is a hadith that supports their opinion.
Ibn Qudamah sums up the various opinions on the subject: "If while
gargling or rinsing the nose for the sake of purifying one's self [for
example, for prayer] water reaches the throat unintentionally and not
due to exaggeration, there is no problem. This is according to al-Auza'i,
Ishaq, and one statement from ash-Shaf'i, which is related from Ibn 'Abbas.
Malik and Abu Hanifah hold that it breaks the fast because that water
reaches the stomach. If he was aware that he was fasting, it breaks his
fast, as if he would have drunk intentionally. The first opinion is stronger,
since [the water] reached the throat without intention or exaggeration.
It is similar to having a fly enter the mouth and proceed to the throat.
That differentiates it from an intentional act."
Fiqh 3.135 b: Those things which one could not protect one's self frorn,
such as swallowing one's saliva, the dust of the road, sifting flour and
so on are all overlooked
Ibn 'Abbas ruling is that: "There is no problem with tasting liquid
food or something you wish to purchase." Al-Hassan used to chew the
walnuts for his grandson while he was fasting. Ibrahim also permitted
Chewing gum (unlike the one in vogue in the West, it has no sweetness
or fragrance) is disliked. The gum must not break into pieces. Those who
say that it is disliked include ash-Sha'bi, anNakha'i, the Hanafiyyah,
the Shaf'iyyah, and the Hanbaliyyah. 'Aishah and 'Ata permit chewing,
as nothing reaches the stomach and it is just like putting pebbles into
one's mouth provided it does not break into parts. If a part of it breaks
off and enters the stomach, it will break the fast.
Ibn Taimiyyah says: "Smelling perfumes does not harm the fast."
Enlarging upon the subject, he says: "As for kohl, injections, drops
dropped into the urethra [that is, enemas for medicinal purposes], and
treatment for brain and stomach injuries, there is some dispute among
the scholars. Some say that none of these break the fast, some say that
all except kohl would break the fast, while others say all except the
drops break the fast, or that the kohl or drops do not break the fast
but that the rest do." Ibn Taimiyyah continues: "The first opinion
on this question is preferred. The most apparent conclusion is that none
of them break the fast. The fast is part of the religion of Islam. Both
the layman and specialist must be knowledgeable about it. If the preceding
actions were forbidden by Allah and His Messenger to the fasting person
because they would ruin the fast, then it would have been obligatory upon
the Messenger to clarify that fact. If he had done so, his companions
would have known about it and would have passed it on to the rest of the
Muslims. Since no one has related that not from the Prophet, not with
an authentic or a weak hadith, nor in mursal or musnad form then it must
be the case that such acts do not void [the fast]." He also says:
"If the ruling is one that would affect everyone or everyday matters,
then the Prophet would have clarified it to a general audience. It is
well-known that kohl was in common use as were oils, washing, incense,
and perfume. If they broke the fast, the Prophet would have mentioned
them, as he mentioned other things [that break the fast]. Since he did
not do so, they belong to the class of perfumes, incense, and dyes. Incense
goes through the nose and enters the head and lands on the body. Dyes
or oils are absorbed by the skin and the body is refreshened by it. The
case of perfumes is similar. Since these have not been [explicitly] prohibited
to the fasting person, it points to the fact that using them is permissible
for the fasting person and so is kohl. The Muslims during the time of
the Prophet would injure themselves, either from jihad or otherwise, and
would injure their stomachs or skulls. If that would have ended their
fasts, it would have been made clear to them [by the Prophet].
Since that was not prohibited for the fasting person, it must not break
the fast." Ibn Taimiyyah continues: "No one eats kohl and no
one causes it to enter his stomach--neither through his nose nor through
his mouth. Anal enemas are also not taken as food. Indeed, it helps the
body to release whatever is in the intestines and it does not reach the
stomach. Any medicine that is used to treat stomach wounds or head injuries
[that is taken orally] is not considered similar to food. Allah says in
the Qur'an: 'Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those
before you.' The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: 'Fasting is a shield,'
and, Verily, Satan rushes through the body like the flowing of the blood
[in the body]. You should constrict his rushing by hunger and fasting.'
To increase his Allah-consciousness a fasting person must not eat or drink
because food and drink cause the veins to fill up with blood in which
Satan circulates [in one's body]. They become easier for Satan through
eating and drinking, not from enemas, kohl, or medicines applied through
the penis or used to treat stomach and brain injuries."
Fiqh 3.137: Fasting, the fasting person can eat, drink, and perform
sexual intercourse until fajr
If someone has food in his mouth when fajr is beginning, he should spit
it out. If he is having intercourse (with his wife) at that time, he should
immediately stop. If he does so, his fast will still be valid. If he continues
in these actions at that time, he will have broken his fast. Al-Bukhari
and Muslim record from Aishah that the Prophet said: "Bilal makes
the call to prayer while it is still night; therefore, eat and drink until
Ibn Umm Maktum makes the call to prayer."
Fiqh 3.137 a: It is permissible for the fasting person to be sexually
defiled in the morning (that is, a person is not required to perform ghusl
The hadith from 'Aishah on this point has already been mentioned.
Fiqh 3.137 b: Menstruating or post-childbirth bleeding women
If the blood of a menstruating woman or of a woman with post-childbirth
bleeding stops during the night, she can delay ghusl until the morning
and still fast but, she must perform ghusl before the morning prayer.
Fiqh 3.138: Actions that Void the Fast
The actions that void the fast may be divided into two types:
1 those which void the fast and require that the day be made up
2 those which void the fast and, in addition to being made up,
also require an act of expiation.
Fiqh 3.138 a: Intentional eating or drinking
If one eats due to forgetfulness, a mistake, or coercion, then he does
not have to make up the day later or perform any expiation. Abu Hurairah
reported that the Prophet said: "Whoever forgets he is fasting, and
eats or drinks is to complete his fast, as it was Allah who fed him and
gave him something to drink." This is related by the group.
Commenting on it, at-Tirmizhi says: "Most of the scholars act according
to this hadith. It is the opinion of Sufyan ath-Thauri, ash-Shaf'i, Ahrnad,
Abu Hanifah reported that the Prophet said: "Whoever breaks his
fast during Ramadan due to forgetfulness is not to make up the day later
or to perform any expiation." This is related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi,
and al-Hakim, who says that it is sahih according to Muslim's criterion.
Ibn Hajr says that its chain is sahih.
Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet said: "Allah will not hold
anyone of this nation responsible for what is done in error, forgetfulness
or under coercion." This is recounted by Ibn Majah, at-Tabarani,
Fiqh 3.138 b: Fasting, intentional vomiting
If one is overcome and vomits unintentionally, he does not have to make
up the day later on or perform the acts of expiation. Abu Hurairah reported
that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever is overcome
and vomits is not to make up the day." Whoever vomits intentionally
must make up the day." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi,
Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, ad-Daraqutni, and al-Hakim. The latter called it
Of the report's credibility, al-Khattabi says: "I do not know of
any difference of opinion among the scholars on this point. If one vomits
unintentionally he is not in need of making up the day, while one who
vomits intentionally must make up the day later."
Fiqh 3.139: Fasting, the menses and post-childbirth bleeding
Even if such bleeding begins just before the sunset, the fast of that
day is rendered void and the day must be made up. There is a consensus
of scholars on this point.
Fiqh 3.139 a: Fasting, ejaculation of sperm
Ejaculation voids the fast even if it was just due to kissing, hugging,
or masturbation, and the day must be made up. If the ejaculation was due
to looking at or thinking about something, then it is like having a wet
dream during the day and it, therefore, does not void the fast nor is
there any requirement on the person. Similarly, ejaculation of seminal
fluid does not harm the fast in any way.
Fiqh 3.139 b: Eating something that is not nourishing, such as salt
Someone who uses a lot of salt for a reason other than eating, in which
it goes down to the stomach, breaks the fast according to most scholars.
Fiqh 3.139 c: If one has the intention, while he is fasting, to break
the fast, he in effect voids the fast even if he does not actually eat
This is because the intention is one of the pillars of the fast and,
if one changes his intention, he has nullified his fast.
Fiqh 3.139 d: If one eats, drinks, or has intercourse, thinking that
the sun has set or that fajr has not occurred
In such cases, according to most scholars and the four imams, that person
is to make up that day. However, there is a difference of opinion on this
point. Ishaq, Dawud, Ibn Hazm, 'Ata, 'Urwah, al-Hassan al-Basri, and Mujahid
maintain that such a fast is sound and that the person need not make up
the day later. They base their opinion on the fact that Allah says in
the Qur'an: "And there is no sin for you in the mistakes you make
unintentionally, but what your hearts purpose [that will be a sin for
Fiqh 3.139 e: Unintentional mistakes
The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Allah will not
hold anyone of this nation responsible for what is done by mistake . .
'Abdurrazaq related that Mamar reported from al-Amash that Zaid ibn Wahb
said: "The people broke their fast during the time of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab.
I saw a big pot being brought from Hafsah's house and the people drank.
Then the sun appeared from behind the clouds and this distressed the people.
They said: 'We have to make up this day.' 'Umar asked: 'Why? By Allah,
we have not involved ourselves in any sin.' "
Al-Bukhari records that Asma' bint Abu Bakr said: "We broke the
fast of Ramadan when it was cloudy during the time of the Prophet, and
then the sun appeared again."
Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says: "This points to two
1 that it is not preferred for one to delay breaking the fast
until one is absolutely certain that the sun has set . . . and
2 that it is not necessary to make up such a day. If the Prophet
would have ordered them to make up that day, it would have become public
knowledge. The fact that it has been related that they broke their fast
[and that it has not been related that they were ordered to make up that
day] points to the fact that they were not ordered to make up that day."
The only action, according to most scholars, which requires that both
the day be made up and the act of expiation be performed is having sexual
intercourse during a day of Ramadan.
Abu Hurairah reported that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said:
"I am destroyed, O Messenger of Allah!" The Prophet asked: "What
has destroyed you?" He said, "I had intercourse with my wife
during a day of Ramadan." The Prophet asked: "Are you able to
free a slave?" He said, "No". The Prophet asked: "Is
it possible for you to fast for two consecutive months?" He said,
"No." The Prophet asked: "Is it possible for you to feed
sixty poor people?" He said, "No." The Prophet said: "Then
sit." A basket of dates was brought to the Prophet and he said to
the man: Give this in charity. The man said: "To someone poorer than
us? There is no one in this city who is poorer than us!" The Prophet
laughed until his molar teeth could be seen and said: "Go and feed
your family with it." This is related by the group.
Most scholars say that both men and women have to perform the acts of
expiation if they intentionally have intercourse during a day of Ramadan
on which they had intended to fast. If they had intercourse out of forgetfulness
or not due to choice--that is, due to coercion, or they did not have the
intention to fast, then the expiation is not obligatory on either one
of them. If the woman was forced to have intercourse by the man, the expiation
will be obligatory only upon the man.
According to ash-Shaf'i, the expiation is not obligatory upon the woman
in any case--that is, regardless if it was due to choice or coercion,
and she need only make up the day of fasting that she voided. An-Nawawi
says: "The most authentic opinion, in general, is that the expiation
is obligatory upon the man only and that there is nothing upon the woman.
There is nothing obligatory on her in relation to this matter, as it is
a matter of [paying] money [due to something related to] sexual intercourse
and this refers to the duty of the man and not the woman. [In this way,]
it is similar to the case of dowry."
Abu Dawud says: "Ahmad was asked about someone who had sex during
Ramadan: 'Is there any expiation upon the woman?' He said: 'I have not
heard of any.' " In al-Mughni it is stated: "This refers to
the fact that the Prophet ordered the man who had had sexual intercourse
to free a slave. He did not order the woman to do anything, although he
obviously knew that she was a partner in the act."
According to most scholars, acts of expiation must be performed in the
order that was mentioned in the hadith. The first command is to free a
slave. If this is not possible, the person is to fast for two consecutive
months. If that is not possible, the person is to feed sixty poor people
with meals that are similar to an average meal in his household. The person
cannot jump from one act to another unless he is not able to perform the
prior order commanded. According to the Malikiyyah and a narration from
Ahmad, the person is free to choose any of the above three acts and that
will be sufficient for him.
This latter opinion is based on the report from Malik and Ibn Juraij
on the authority of Humaid ibn 'Abdurrahman who reported that Abu Hurairah
narrated that a man broke his fast during Ramadan and the Prophet ordered
him, as an expiation, to free a slave or fast two months consecutively
or to feed sixty poor people. This is related by Muslim.
In the preceding hadith, the word "or" implies choice, but
according to some, the reason for the expiation to be performed was different
and therefore the person could choose, as in the case of the expiation
for breaking an oath. Ash-Shaukani says: "In the different narrations,
there is evidence that the expiation is to be performed in order or according
to one's choice. Those who relate it to be in order are more in number.
Al-Muhallab and al-Qurtubi combined the narrations and said that the event
[of someone breaking the fast] occurred more than once."
Al-Hafizh differs: "This is not correct. It was just one event and
the parts are all united. So the crux of the matter is that there was
not more than one event. Some combine the reports and say that following
the order is preferred, but that one may choose. Others say the opposite."
Whoever has sexual intercourse (with his wife) on a day of Ramadan and,
before he performs the act of expiation, has intercourse on another day
of Ramadan, need only perform one act of expiation according to a narration
from Ahmad and the Hanafiyyah. This is because there is a punishment for
acts that are repeated, and if the expiation or punishment is not carried
out, all the acts are taken together as one. According to Malik, ash-Shaf'i,
and Ahmad, the person must perform the expiation twice, as each day of
Ramadan is a separate act of worship. If the expiation is obligatory because
the person voided the fast, the separate acts are not combined together.
All scholars agree that if the person intentionally had intercourse during
a day of Ramadan and has performed the expiation and then has intercourse
on another day of Ramadan, then another expiation becomes obligatory upon
him. Similarly, they are in agreement that if one has intercourse twice
during a day, before performing the expiation for the first act, then
he need only perform one act of expiation. If he has performed the expiation
for the first one, then he need not perform an act of expiation for the
second, according to most scholars. Ahmad says that in such a case, he
must perform a total of two acts of expiation.
Fiqh 3.142: Making Up Missed Days of Ramadan
Making up missed days of Ramadan is an obligation that need not be fulfilled
immediately because the time for fulfilling is very wide and one may perform
it at any time. This is also the case with the fast of expiation. It has
been authentically reported that 'Aishah would make up her missed days
during the month of Sha'ban (the month preceding Ramadan), and that she
did not perform them immediately even if she had the ability to do so.
Observing the fast of Ramadan and making up the days are the same with
respect to the fact that if one day of Ramadan is missed, then only one
day needs to be made up. There is no additional penalty. They differ about
the fact that when a person makes up the missed days he need not do so
on consecutive days. This is because Allah says: "For him who is
sick or on a journey, [the same] number of other days"--that is,
whoever is sick or traveling and breaks the fast must fast the same number
of days that he missed, consecutively or unconsecutively.
Allah has ordered the fast in a general manner without any restricting
As for making up the missed days of Ramadan, ad-Daraqutni recorded from
Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet said: "If you wish, make them on nonconsecutive
days and if you wish on consecutive days."
If one delays performing the missed days of fasting until the next Ramadan
comes, he is to fast the present Ramadan and then make up the days from
the previous Ramadan. There is no ransom payment to be made, regardless
of whether the person delayed the fasting due to some acceptable excuse
or not. This is the opinion of the Hanafiyyah and al-Hassan al-Basri.
Malik, ash-Shaf'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq agree that there is no ransom payment
if the fasting was delayed due to some excuse, but they differ when the
fasting was delayed without any acceptable excuse. In such a case, according
to them, the person should fast the present Ramadan and then make up the
days he missed from the previous Ramadan along with a ransom payment of
a mudd of food given in charity each day. It should be noted that they
have no acceptable evidence for that opinion. Apparently, the correct
opinion is that of the Hanafiyyah, as there is no lawmaking without an
authentic legal text to support it (that is, a Qur'anic verse or hadith).
Fiqh 3.143: Whoever dies and still had some days of Ramadan to make
The scholars agree that if an individual dies and has missed some prayers
during his life, his guardian or heir is not to perform those prayers
on his behalf. Similarly, if one does not have the ability to fast, no
one is to fast for him while he is alive. There is a difference of opinion
over the case of one who dies and has not made up some days of fasting
although he had the ability to do so.
Most scholars, including Abu Hanifah, Malik, and the Shaf'iyyah, say
that the guardian or heir is not to fast on such a person's behalf, but
is to feed one person a day for the missed days. The chosen opinion, however,
among the Shaf'iyyah is that it is preferred for the guardian to fast
on the deceased's behalf, thus fulfilling his duty. There is therefore
no need for him to feed anyone.
The meaning of guardian is near relative, whether it be an agnate or
an heir or someone else. If a non-relative fasts for the deceased, it
will only be valid if he got the permission of the guardian.
The proof for the preceding is what Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim recorded
from 'Aishah. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "If
one dies and has some fasts to make up, then his guardian' should fast
on his behalf." Al-Bazzar added the words: "If he wishes to
do so, while Ibn 'Abbas related that a man came to the Prophet and said:
"O Messenger of Allah, my mother died and a month's fasting was due
from her. Should I fast on her behalf?" The Prophet asked: "If
your mother had a debt would you fulfill it for her?" He said, "Yes."
The Prophet observed: "A debt to Allah has more of a right to be
fulfilled." This is related by Ahmad, atTirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, Abu
Dawud, and Ibn Majah.
An-Nawawi [one of the most knowledgeable of the Shaf'iyyah] says: "That
statement is the most authentic one, and we follow it. This is the opinion
that has been determined to be correct according to our companions in
both hadith and fiqh."
Fiqh 3.144: Places where the day is extremely long and the night is
Scholars differ about what the Muslims who are in areas where the day
is extremely long and the night is short should do. What timings should
they follow? Some say they should follow the norms of the areas where
the Islamic legislation took place--that is, Makkah or Madinah. Others
say they should follow the timings of the area that is closest to them
which has normal days and nights.
Fiqh 3.144 a: Night of Qadr, its virtue
The night of qadr is the most virtuous night of the year. Allah says
in the Qur'an: "We revealed it on the night of power [that is, qadr].
What will tell you what the night of power is? It is better than a thousand
months." Any action therein, for example, reciting the Qur'an, making
remembrance of Allah, and so on, is better than acting for one thousand
months which do not contain the night of qadr.
Fiqh 3.145: Night of Qadr, it is preferred to seek this night
It is preferred to seek this night during the last ten nights of Ramadan,
as the Prophet, upon whom be peace, strove his best in seeking it during
that time. We have already mentioned that the Prophet would stay up during
the last ten nights, would wake his wives, and then would remain apart
from them to worship.
Fiqh 3.145 a: Night of Qadr, which night is it?
Scholars hold different opinions as to the night which is the night of
qadr. Some are of the opinion that it is the 21st, some say the 23rd,
others say the 25th and still others say it is the 29th. Some say that
it varies from year to year but it is always among the last ten nights
of Ramadan. Most scholars, though, vouch for the 27th.
Ahmad recorded, with a sahih chain, from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet said:
"He who likes to seek that night should do so on the 27th. Ubayy
ibn K'ab said: By Allah, and there is no God but Him, it is during Ramadan--and
He swore to that--and by Allah, I know what night it is. It is the night
during which the Prophet ordered us to make prayers, the night of the
27th. Its sign is that the sun rises in the morning white and without
any rays." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and by at-Tirmizhi
who called it sahih.
Fiqh 3.145 b: Night of Qadr, praying and making supplications during
the night of qadr
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, upon
whom be peace, said: "Whoever prays during the night of qadr with
faith and hoping for its reward will have all of his previous sins forgiven."
As to the supplication during the night of qadr, 'Aishah said: "I
asked the Messenger of Allah: 'O Messenger of Allah, if I know what night
is the night of qadr, what should I say during it?' He said: 'Say: O Allah,
You are pardoning and You love to pardon, so pardon me.' " This is
related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and by atTirmizhi, who called it sahih.
Fiqh 3.147: I'tikaf, its meaning
I'tikaf means to stick to something, whether good or bad, and to block
out everything else. Allah says in the Qur'an: "What then are images
that you pay devotion [akifun] to them?" [alAnbia' 52]--that is,
what they devoted themselves to in worship. What is meant here is the
seclusion and staying in the mosque with the intention of becoming closer
Fiqh 3.147 a: I'tikaf, its legitimacy
All scholars agree on its legitimacy. The Prophet would perform i'tikaf
for ten days every Ramadan. In the year that he died, he performed it
for twenty days. This is related by alBukhari, Abu Dawud, and ibn-Majah.
The Prophet's companions and wives performed i'tikaf with him and continued
to do so after his death. Even though it is an act which is done to get
closer to Allah, there is no sound hadith concerning its merits. Abu Dawud
states: "I said to Ahmad, 'Are you aware of anything concerning the
virtues of i'tikaf?' He answered: 'No, except for some weak [reports].'
Fiqh 3.147 b: I'tikaf, the different types of i'tikaf
I'tikaf is of two types: sunnah and obligatory. The sunnah i'tikaf is
that which the Muslim performs to get closer to Allah by following the
actions of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, especially during the last
ten days of Ramadan. The obligatory i'tikaf is that which the person makes
obligatory upon himself. This may be done, for example, by an oath: "For
Allah I must make i'tikaf," or by a conditional oath: "If Allah
cures me, I shall make i'tikaf ..." In Sahih al-Bukhari it is reported
that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever makes an oath
to obey Allah should be obedient to Him." 'Umar said: "O Messenger
of Allah, I made an oath to perform i'tikaf one night in the mosque at
Makkah." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Fulfill your
Fiqh 3.148: I'tikaf, the length of i'tikaf
The obligatory i'tikaf is to be as long as the oath states it to be.
If one makes an oath to make i'tikaf for one day or more, he is to fulfill
that length of time.
Fiqh 3.149: I'tikaf, the sunnah or preferred i'tikaf has no specific
It can be fulfilled by staying in the mosque with the intention of making
i'tikaf for a long or short time. The reward will be according to how
long one stays in the mosque. If one leaves the mosque and then returns,
he should renew his intention to perform i'tikaf. Ya'la ibn Umayyah said:
"I secluded myself in the mosque for some time for i'tikaf."
'Ata told him: "That is i'tikaf, as long as you secluded yourself
there. If you sit in the mosque hoping for good, it is i'tikaf. Otherwise,
it is not." One who is performing the nonobligatory i'tikaf may end
his i'tikaf at any time, even if it is before the period he intended to
stay. 'Aishah related that if the Prophet intended to make i'tikaf, he
would pray the morning prayer and begin it. One time he wanted to make
i'tikaf during the last ten nights of Ramadan, and he ordered his tent
to be set up. Aishah reported: "When I saw that, I ordered my tent
to be set up, and some of the Prophets wives followed suit. When he [the
Prophet] prayed the morning prayer, he saw all of the tents, and said:
"What is this?" They said: "We are seeking obedience [to
Allah and His Messenger]." Then he ordered his tent and those of
his wives to be taken down, and he delayed his i'tikaf to the first ten
days [of Shawwal]." The fact that the messenger of Allah ordered
his wives' tents to be struck down and asked them to leave the i'tikaf
after they have made the intention for it shows that they discarded the
i'tikaf after they had begun it. The hadith also shows that a man may
prevent his wife from preforming i'tikaf if she did not get his permission
to perform it. There is a difference of opinion over the case of the man
granting permission to his wife and then rescinding it. According to ashShaf'i,
Ahmad, and Dawud, this is permissible for the husband, and the wife must
leave her i'tikaf in such case.
Fiqh 3.149 a: I'tikaf, the condition for i'tikaf
The one who preforms i'tikaf must be a Muslim adult, a discerning child
who is free of sexual defilement, or an adolescent who is free of menstrual
or childbirth bleeding. I'tikaf is not acceptable from an unbeliever,
a non-discerning child, a sexually defiled person, a menstruating woman
with post-childbirth bleeding.
Fiqh 3.149 b: I'tikaf, the principles of i'tikaf
I'tikaf will be fulfilled if a person stays in the mosque with the intention
of becoming closer to Allah. If the person is not in the mosque or did
not do it with the intention to please Allah, it is not i'tikaf. The fact
that the intention is obligatory is proven by Allah words: "They
are ordained nothing else than to serve Allah, keeping religion pure for
Him." The Prophet said: "Every action is according to the intention
[behind it] and for everyone is what he intended."
Certainly, i'tikaf must be done in the mosque, as Allah says: "And
do not touch and be at your devotions in the mosque [alBaqarah 178]."
This 'ayah proves that if it were proper for i'tikaf to be performed elsewhere,
why would Allah exclusively disallow coming to one's wife during i'tikaf.
The answer is that since such an act would nullify i'tikaf (no matter
where it is peformed), it is clear that i'tikaf itself must be in the
Fiqh 3.149 c: The opinion of the jurists concerning the mosques in which
the i'tikaf is to be performed
There is a difference of opinion among the jurists concerning what mosques
are acceptable for i'tikaf. According to Abu Hanifah, Ahmad, Ishaq, and
Abu Thaur, i'tikaf is valid in any mosque in which the five prayers are
held and which has a congregation. This is based on the hadith of the
Prophet: "Every mosque that has a caller to prayer and an imam is
acceptable for i'tikaf." This is related by ad-Daraqutni, but the
hadith is mursal and weak and cannot be used as a proof.
Malik, ash-Shafi, and Dawud say that it is acceptable in any mosque,
as there is no proof that restricts it to any particular mosques. The
Shaf'iyyah say it is better to perform i'tikaf in a congregational mosque,
as the Prophet, upon whom be peace, performed i'tikaf in such a mosque,
and because the nwnber of those who attend the prayers in such a mosque
is greater. If the period of i'tikaf includes the time for the Friday
prayer, then one must perform it in the congregational mosque in order
not to miss the Friday prayer.
The person making i'tikaf may make the call to prayer if the place from
whence the call is made is either the door of the mosque or its interior
courtyard. He may also go to the roof of the mosque, as all of that is
considered part of the mosque. If the place for the call to prayer is
outside of the mosque, and the mu'takif makes the call, he will void his
i'tikaf. The exterior courtyard is considered part of the mosque according
to the Hanafiyyah and Shaf'iyyah and one narration from Ahmad. According
to Malik and another narration, it is not part of the mosque and the person
making i'tikaf should not go there.
Most scholars say that it is not correct for a woman to make i'tikaf
in the mosque in her house (that is, the special place of her house where
she performs her prayers) because the mosque in her house usually does
not fall in the category of mosques and can be sold. There is no difference
of opinion on this point. The wives of the Prophet always performed their
i'tikaf in the Prophet's mosque.
Fiqh 3.150: I'tikaf, the Beginning and Ending of i'tikaf
We have already mentioned that the voluntary i'tikaf does not have any
specific time period. Whenever a person enters the mosque and makes the
intention of becoming closer to Allah by staying there, he will be peforming
i'tikaf until he leaves. If he has the intention to perform i'tikaf during
the last ten days of Ramadan, he should begin it before the sun sets.
Al-Bukhari records from Abu Sa'id that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said: "Whoever makes i'tikaf with me is to make i'tikaf during the
last ten [nights]." The ten refers to the last ten nights which begin
on the night of the 20th or the 21st.
Concerning the statement that when the Prophet desired to make i'tikaf
he would pray the morning and then go to the place of his i'tikaf, it
means that he used to enter the place which he had prepared for his seclusion,
but the actual time that he entered the mosque for his seclusion was during
the beginning of the night.
According to Abu Hanifah and ash-Shafi, whoever performs i'tikaf during
the last ten days of Ramadan must leave the mosque after sunset on the
last day of the month. Malik and Ahmad say that it is acceptable to leave
after sunset, but they prefer for the person to remain in the mosque until
the time for the 'id prayer.
Al-'Athram records from Abu Ayyub that Abu Qulabah would stay in the
mosque on the night before the 'id prayer and would then go to the 'id
prayer. During his i'tikaf, he had no mat or prayer carpet to sit on.
He used to sit like anyone else. Abu Ayyub said: "I came to him on
the day of 'id and on his lap was Juwairiyah Muzinah. I thought it was
one of his daughters, but it was a slave that he had freed, and he came
that way to the 'id prayer." Ibrahim said: "The people preferred
that one who performed i'tikaf during the last ten days of Ramadan stay
in the mosque on the night of 'id and then proceed to the 'id prayer from
If an individual makes a vow to perform i'tikaf for a specific period
of days, or he wants to do so voluntarily, then he should begin his i'tikaf
before dawn and leave when all the sun's light has gone, regardless of
whether that be during Ramadan or at another time. If he vowed to perform
i'tikaf for a night or a specified number of nights, or if he wants to
do so voluntarily, then he should begin his i'tikaf before the sun has
completely set and may leave when it is clear that dawn has begun. Ibn
Hazm says: "The night begins when the sun sets and ends with dawn.
The day begins with dawn and is completed by sunset. This is not a condition
upon anyone unless he desires or intends to fulfill it. If one vows or
wants to make i'tikaf voluntarily for a month, he should begin during
the first night of the month. He should enter the mosque before the sun
has completely set and may leave after the sun has completely set at the
end of the month--regardless of whether it is Ramadan or otherwise."
Fiqh 3.151: What is preferred for the person who is fasting and what
is disliked for him?
It is preferred for the one who is making i'tikaf to perform many supererogatory
acts of worship and to occupy himself with prayers, reciting the Qur'an,
glorifying and praising Allah, extolling His oneness and His greatness,
asking His forgiveness, sending salutations on the Prophet, upon whom
be peace, and supplicating Allah--that is, all actions that bring one
closer to Allah. Included among these actions is studying and reading
books of tafsir and hadith, books on the lives of the Prophets, upon whom
be peace, books of fiqh, and so on. It is also preferred to set up a small
tent in the courtyard of the mosque as the Prophet did.
It is disliked for one to engage himself in affairs that do not concern
him. At-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah record on the authority of Abu Basrah that
the Prophet said: "Part of a man's good observance of Islam is that
he leave alone that which does not concern him." It is, however,
disliked for a person to think that he can draw closer to Allah by not
speaking. Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah record from Ibn 'Abbas
that while the Prophet was delivering a speech, he saw a man standing
and asked about him. The people said: "He is Abu Israel. He has vowed
to stand and not to sit, and not to speak, and to fast." The Prophet
said: "Order him to speak, go to the shade, to sit, and to complete
his fast." Abu Dawud related from 'Ali that the Prophet said: "There
is no orphanhood after one has passed the age of maturity, and there is
no non-speaking for a day until the nightfall."
Fiqh 3.152: Fasting while performing i'tikaf
It is good for the person performing i'tikaf to fast, but he is not under
any obligation to do so. Al-Bukhari records from Ibn 'Umar that 'Umar
said: "O Messenger of Allah, during the days of ignorance I vowed
to perform i'tikaf one night in the mosque at Makkah. The Prophet said:
'Fulfill your vow.' " This statement of the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, shows that fasting is not a condition for i'tikaf; otherwise, performing
i'tikaf at night would not be valid. Sa'id ibn Mansur records that Abu
Sahl said: "One of my wives was to perform i'tikaf, so I asked 'Umar
ibn 'Abdulaziz about it. He said: 'She need not fast, unless she imposes
it upon herself.' Az-Zuhri said: 'There is no i'tikaf save while fasting.'
'Umar asked: 'Is this from the Prophet?' Az-Zuhri answered, 'No.' 'Umar
asked, 'From Abu Bakr?' Az-Zuhri said,'No.' 'Umar asked [again], 'From
'Umar [ibn al-Khattab]?' Az-Zuhri said, 'No.' 'Umar said: 'I suspect he
said it from 'Uthman?' Az-Zuhri said, 'No.' I [Abu Sahl] left them and
met 'Ata and Tawus and asked them about it. Tawus said: 'A person would
see that he did not have to fast unless he imposed it on himself.'"
Al-Khattabi acknowledges [the differences on the issue]: "There
is a difference of opinion among the people on this point."
Al-Hassan al-Basri holds: "Performing i'tikaf without fasting suffices.
That is also the opinion of ash-Shaf'i."
'Ali and Ibn Mas'ud maintain: "If one wishes, one may fast and if
one does not wish to, one does not have to."
Al-Auza'i and Malik hold: "There is no i'tikaf without fasting,
and that is the conclusion of the people of opinion. That has been related
from Ibn 'Umar, Ibn 'Abbas, and 'Aishah, and it is the opinion of Sa'eed
ibn al-Musayyeb, 'Urwah ibn az-Zubair, and az-Zuhri."
Fiqh 3.152 a: Permisible Acts for the Mu'takif
The following acts are perrnissible for one who is making i'tikaf:
1 The person may leave his place of i'tikaf to bid farewell to
his wife. Safiyyah reported: "The Prophet was performing i'tikaf
and I went to visit him during the night. I talked to him and then I got
up to go. He got up with me and accompanied me to my house. (Her residence
was in the house of Usamah ibn Zaid. Two men of the Ansar passed by them
and when they saw the Prophet they quickened their pace.) The Prophet
said: 'Hold on, she is Safiyyah bint Haya.' They said: 'Glory be to Allah,
O Messenger of Allah twe did not have any doubt about you].' The Prophet,
upon whom be peace, said: 'Satan flows in the person like blood. I feared
that he might have whispered some [slander] into your heart.'" This
is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
2 Combing and cutting one's hair, clipping one's nails, cleaning
one's body, wearing nice clothes or wearing perfume are all permissible.
'Aishah reported: "The Prophet was performing i'tikaf and he would
put his head out through the opening to my room and I would clean [or
comb in one narration] his hair. I was menstruating at the time."
This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.
3 The person may go out for some need that he must perform. 'Aishah
reported: "When the Prophet performed i'tikaf, he brought his head
close to me so I could comb his hair, and he would not enter the house
except to fulfill the needs a person has." This is related by al-Bukhari,
Muslim, and others.
Ibn al-Munzhir says: "The scholars agree that the one who performs
i'tikaf may leave the mosque in order to answer the call of nature, for
this is something that he personally must perform, and he cannot do it
in the mosque. Also, if he needs to eat or drink and there is no one to
bring him his food, he may leave to get it. If one needs to vomit, he
may leave the mosque to do so. For anything that he must do but cannot
do in the mosque, he can leave it, and such acts will not void his i'tikaf,
even if they take a long time. Examples of these types of acts would include
washing one's self from sexual defilement and cleaning his body or clothes
Sa'id ibn Mansur records that 'Ali said: "If a person is performing
i'tikaf, he is to attend the Friday congregational prayer, be present
at funerals, visit the ill and go to see his family about matters that
are necesssary, but he is to remain standing [while visiting them]."
'Ali helped his nephew by giving him 700 dirhams to buy a servant and
the nephew said: "I am performing i'tikaf ". 'Ali said: "What
blame would there be upon you if you go to the market to buy one?"
Qatadah used to permit the person who was performing i'tikaf to follow
the funeral procession and to visit the sick, but not to sit while doing
so. Ibrahim an-Nakha'i says that they preferred that the person who was
performing i'tikaf do the following deeds and he was allowed to do them
even if he did not do them to visit the sick, to attend the Friday prayers,
to witness the funerals, to go out to meet his needs, and not to enter
a place that has a ceiling. He said: "The one who is performing i'tikaf
should not enter a roofed place unless there is a need to do so."
Al-Khattabi says: "A group of people say that the person performing
i'tikaf may attend the Friday prayer, visit the ill, and witness funerals.
This has been related from 'Ali, and it is the opinion of Sa'id ibn Jubair,
al-Hassan al-Basri, and an-Nakha'i." Abu Dawud records from 'Aishah
that the Prophet would visit the sick while performing i'tikaf. He would
visit them without steering away from his path. It has also been related
from her that it is sunnah for the person not to leave his place of i'tikaf
and visit the sick. This means that the person is not to leave his place
of i'tikaf with the sole intention of visiting the sick, but if he passes
by him, he may ask about him provided it is not out of his way.
4 The person may eat, drink, and sleep in the mosque, and he should
also keep it clean. He may make contracts for marriage, buying, selling,
and so on.
Fiqh 3.154: Actions that Nullify the I'tikaf
If a person performs one of the following acts, his i 'tikaf will be
1 Intentionally leaving the mosque without any need to do so,
even if it is for just a short time. In such a case, one would not be
staying in the mosque, which is one of the principles of i'tikaf.
2 Abandoning belief in Islam, as this would nullify all acts of
worship. If you ascribe a partner to Allah, your work will fail and you
will be among the losers.
3 Losing one's reason due to insanity or drunkenness, or the onset
of menstruation or post-childbirth bleeding, all of which disqualifies
a person for i'tikaf.
4 Sexual intercourse. Allah says: "But touch them not [that
is, your wives] and be at your devotions in the mosque."
However, one may touch his wife without there being any desires. One
of the Prophet's wives would comb his hair while he was performing i'tikaf.
As for kissing or touching due to desire, Abu Hanifah and Ahmad say that
it is not desirable, for it leads to something that is forbidden for the
one performing i'tikaf. However, it does not nullify it unless one ejaculates.
Malik says that it nullifies the i'tikaf, for it is an illegal touch regardless
of whether the person involved ejaculates or not. From ash-Shaf~i there
are two reports that correspond to the two preceding opinions.
Ibn Rushd explains that: "The reason for their differences of opinion
is [the (fact) that] if a word has more than one meaning, one being literal
and the other figurative, does the word apply at one time to all of them
or not? This is one of the types of words that have more than one meaning.
Those who say that it carries both meanings interpret 'touch' in the 'ayah
. . . 'and touch them not and be at your devotions in the mosque' in the
unrestrictive sense--that is, covering both sexual intercourse and also
actions [of touching] that are less than that. Those who don't say it
carries all of its meanings and they are the majority say that the 'ayah
points to sexual intercourse or to touching that is less than intercourse.
If we say that it refers to sexual intercourse by consensus, then this
nullifies the possibility of it referring to actions less than intercourse,
as one [single] word could not be taken in its literal and figurative
meaning [at the same time]. Those who say that what is less than sexual
intercourse is included say so because it falls under the literal meaning
of the verse. Those who differ do not take the word in its literal and
figurative meaning at the same time.
Fiqh 3.155: Making Up I'tikaf
If an individual intends to perform a voluntary i'tikaf and then ends
it before he completes it, he should make up that i'tikaf later. Some
say that it is obligatory to do so.
Writing on the subject, at-Tirmizhi says: "There is a difference
of opinion about a person who ends his i'tikaf before his intended time
has expired." Malik holds: "If he ends his i'tikaf [early],
it is obligatory upon him to make it up. He uses as proof the hadith which
states that when the Prophet abandoned his i'tikaf, he made it up during
the following month of Shawwal." Ash-Shaf'i states: "If he did
not vow to perform i'tikaf or he did not make it obligatory upon himself,
and then he left it early, he does not have to make it up unless he chooses
to do so." He continues: "One does not have to undertake this
act. If he did and then left it, he need not make it up [since it was
voluntary], except for the case of hajj and 'umrah." Notwithstanding
this, the imams agree that if one makes a vow to perform i'tikaf for a
day or a number of days and then voids his i'tikaf, it is obligatory upon
him to make it up whenever he can. If he dies before he makes it up, then
no one is obliged to make it up on his behalf. On the other hand, Ahmad
argues: "It is obligatory on his inheritors to make it up on his
behalf. 'Abdurrazzaq related from 'Abdulkarim ibn Umayyah who said he
heard 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Utbah say: "Our mother died while
she still had some i'tikaf to perform. I asked Ibn 'Abbas and he said:
'Perform i'tikaf on her behalf and fast.'" Sa'id ibn Mansur recorded
that 'Aishah performed i'tikaf on behalf of her brother after his death.
Fiqh 3.156: Retiring of the Mu'takif to the Mosque and Setting Up of
Ibn Majah recorded from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet made i'tikaf during
the last ten days of Ramadan. Nafi' reported: "Ibn 'Umar showed me
the place where the Prophet would perform his i'tikaf."
He also reported that when the Prophet performed i'tikaf, he would spread
out his bed behind the repentance pole (that is, the pole that a companion
had tied himself to until Allah accepted his repentance).
Abu Sa'id reported that the Prophet performed i'tikaf under a Turkish
tent which had something over its openings.
Fiqh 3.156 a: Making a Vow to Perform I'tikaf in a Specific Mosque
If someone makes a vow to perform i'tikaf in the Masjid alHaram (in Makkah),
the Prophet's Mosque (in Madinah), or in the Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem),
he is to fulfill his vow, as the Prophet said: "One should not undertake
journeys except to three mosques: the Masjid al-Haram, the Aqsa mosque,
or this mosque."
If someone vows to perform i'tikaf in another mosque, it is not obligatory
on him to fulfill it and he may perform that i'tikaf in any mosque, for
Allah did not specify any particular place for His worship, and there
is no superiority of one mosque over another (with the exception of the
three mosques mentioned earlier). It has been confirmed that the Prophet
said: "A prayer in my mosque is superior to one thousand prayers
in any other mosque but the Masjid alHaram, and a prayer in that mosque
is superior to a prayer in my mosque by one hundred prayers."
Thus, if someone makes a vow to perform i 'tikaf in the Prophet's mosque,
he may fulfill it in the Masjid al-Haram since that one is superior to
the Prophet's mosque.