Fiqh-us-Sunnah
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Fiqh 4.126: On Looking into a Mirror

'Ali reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, looked into a mirror he would say, "Praise and thanks be to Allah. O Allah, make me good mannered as You made me good looking." (Reported by Ibn As-Sinni) Anas reported that whenever the Prophet, peace be upon him, looked at his face in the mirror, he would say, "Praise be to Allah Who fashioned my nature and gave it a perfect form, and Who honored my face and made it good, and made me one of the Muslims."

Fiqh 4.126 a: On Seeing Someone in Distress

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "If one sees an afflicted person and says, 'Praise and thanks be to Allah Who has saved me from what he has afflicted you with, and has honored me over many of His creatures,' he will be saved from that affliction." (Reported by Tirmizhi, who considers it sound)

An-Nawawi states that the scholars said, "One should say the above mentioned supplication inaudibly so that the afflicted person should not hear it, lest he should be grieved by it. But if the affliction is the result of his sinful conduct then there is no harm in his listening if he is not heedful of evil."

Fiqh 4.127: On Hearing the Sound of a Cock, a Donkey, and a Dog

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, -Seek refuge with Allah against the devil when you hear the sound of a donkey, for it sees the devil, and when you hear a cock, pray to Allah for His bounty, for it sees an angel.' (Bukhan and Muslim)

Abu Daw'ud's version reads, "When you hear the barking of dogs and braying of donkeys during the night seek the refuge of Allah from them, for they see what you don't."

Fiqh 4.127 a: When the Wind Blows

Abu Hurairah reported, "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying, "The wind is a blessing from Allah. It brings mercy as well as punishment. So when you see it do not abuse it, and ask Allah for its good, and seek refuge with Allah against its evil'." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud with a sound chain of narrators)

'Aishah reported that whenever the wind blew, the Prophet, peace be upon him, would supplicate, "O Allah, I ask You for its good, and the good that is in it, and the good of what it is sent with, and I seek Your refuge against its evil, and the evil it is sent with." (Muslim)

Fiqh 4.127 b: On Hearing Thunder

Ibn 'Umar reported that whenever the Prophet, peace be upon him, heard the sound of thunder or lightning he would say, "O Allah, do not destroy us with Your wrath nor let us perish with Your punishment, and save us before it comes to pass." (Reported by Tirmizhi, by its chain of authorities is weak)

Fiqh 4.127 c: On Seeing the Moon

'Abdallah b.'Umar reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, saw moon he would say, "Allah is the Greatest! O Allah, make it shine upon us in peace, faith, security, safety, and with the power to do what You love and are pleased with! O moon! Your Lord and our Lord is Allah." (At-Tabarani)

Qatadah reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, saw the moon, he would say, "You are the new moon of goodness and guidance, the new moon of goodness and guidance. I believe in Allah Who created you." He said this three times. And then he would add, "Praise be to Allah Who caused such and such month to go by in this manner and brought another month (which he named)." This is reported by Abu Daw 'ud.

Fiqh 4.128: Supplications of Sorrow and Grief

Ibn 'Abbas reported, "The Prophet, peace be upon him, at times of sorrow and grief used to supplicate, La iliha illa Allah Al-'Azim, Al-'Alim, la ilaha illa Allah, Rabbul 'arshil 'Azim, la ilaha illa Allahu, Rabbus-Samawati wa rabbul ardi wa rabbul 'arshi karim (There is no god but Allah, the Mighty, the Forbearing, there is no god but Allah, the Lord of the mighty throne, there is no god but Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the earth, and the Lord of the throne of honor)'." This is reported by Bukhari and Muslim.

Anas said that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was faced with a serious difficulty, he would always supplicate, "Ya Hayyu, ya Qayyumu, bi-rahmatika astaghithu (O the Living, O the Eternal, I seek help in Your grace). (Tirmizhi)

Abu Hurairah reported that whenever the Prophet, peace be upon him, was faced with a serious difficulty, he would raise his head to the sky and supplicate, "Subhan-Allah al-'Azim (glory be to Allah, the Mighty)." And when he implored seriously and strongly, he would say "Ya Hayyu, Ya Qayyum (O the Living, the Eternal One)." (Tirmizhi)

Abu Bakrah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The supplications of distress are, 'Allahumma rahmataka arju, fala takilni ila nafsi tarfata 'ain, wa aslah li sha'ni kullahu, la ilaha illa anta (O Allah, I hope for Your mercy, so give me not over to my self even for as little as wink of an eye, and set right all my affairs, there is no god but You)." (Abu Daw'ud)

Asma, daughter of 'Amais, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked her, "Shall I tell you words that you may say in times of pain or distress. These are, 'Allah, Allah, Rabbi la ushriku bihi shai'an (Allah, Allah, my Lord, I associate none with Him)." Another narration says that these words should be said seven times. (Abu Daw'ud)

Sa'd ibn Waqas reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The supplication made by the Companion of the Fish (Prophet Yunus) in the belly of the fish was, 'La ilaha illa anta, subhanaka, inni kuntu minaz-zalimin (there is no god but You, You are far exalted and above all weaknesses, and I was indeed the wrongdoer)'.

If any Muslim supplicates in these words, his supplication will be accepted." In another report we read, "I know words that will cause Allah to remove one's distress. These are the words (of supplication) of my brother Yunus, peace be upon him,'' (Tirmizhi)

Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "If any servant of Allah afflicted with distress or grief makes this supplication, his supplication will be accepted: 'O Allah, I am Your servant, son of Your servant, son of your maidservant. My forehead is in Your hand. Your command conceming me prevails, and Your decision concerning me is just. I call upon You by every one of the beautiful names by which You have described Yourself, or which You have revealed in Your book, or have taught anyone of Your creatures, or which You have chosen to keep in the knowledge of the unseen with You, to make the Qur'an the delight of my heart, the light of my breast, and remover of my griefs, sorrows, and afflictions'." A supplication in these words will be answered. Allah will remove one's affliction and replace it with joy and happiness. (Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban)

Fiqh 4.130: On Encountering the Enemy, and When One is Afraid of the Ruler

Abu Musa narrated that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, feared a people, he used to supplicate against them in these words, "O Allah, we request you to kill them and we seek Your protection against their evil.' (Abu Daw'ud and Nasa'i)

Ibn As-Sinni reported that in a battle the Prophet, peace be upon him, supplicated, "O Master of the Day of Judgment, I worship You alone, and seek only Your help." Anas remarked, "I saw the angels fighting against his enemies and defeating them left and right."

It is also reported from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "When you are afraid of a ruler or someone else, you should say, 'There is no god but Allah, the Forbearing, the Gracious. Glory be to Allah, my Lord, glory be to Allah, the Lord of the seven heavens and of the mighty throne. There is no god but You, strong is your protection, and great is Your praise'."

Ibn 'Abbas said, "Hasbuna-Allah wa ni'am alwakil (Allah suffices us for everything and He is the most excellent guardian)," and then he added, "These words were uttered by the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, when he was thrown into the fire, and the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said these words when the people informed him, 'The people have gathered against you'." (Bukhari)

'Awf b. Malik reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, judged the case of two men. The one who lost the case, turning away to go, said, "Allah is sufficient for us, and He is the best guardian." The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to him, "Allah disapproves of weakness and impotence. You must put in effort and work, but if you are overwhelmed by a difficulty then say, 'Allah is sufficient for me, and he is the most excellent guardian'."

Fiqh 4.131: When One is Confronted with a Difficult Situation

Anas reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to supplicate, "O Allah, there is no ease except what You make easy, and you alone can turn a difficulty into ease." (Ibn As-sinni)

Fiqh 4.131 a: When One is Destitute

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "When you leave your house and are afflicted with hardship, why don't you pray, 'In the name of Allah respecting myself, my property, and my din. O Allah, cause me to be satisfied and pleased with Your decree, and bless me in whatis decreed for me, so that I will not want to hasten what You have delayed, nor to delay what You have hastened'." (Ibn As-Sinni)

Fiqh 4.131 b: When One is in Debt

'Ali related that a slave, who had agreed on terms of his freedom with his master, came to him and said, "I cannot pay my master as I agreed in the terms of freedom, so help me." 'Ali said to him, "Let me teach you the supplication that the Prophet, peace be upon him, taught me. If you say it, Allah will cause your debt to be paid even if it be as great as a mountain. Say, 'O Allah, make Your lawful bounties sufficient for me so as to save me from what is unlawful, and from Your grace grant me sufficient abundance to make me free from the need of all except You'." (Reported by Tirmizhi, who considers it sound)

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported, "One day the Prophet, peace beupon him, entered the mosque. He saw there a man from the Ansar called Abu Umamah. He asked, 'What is the matter with you that I see you sitting in the mosque when it is not the time of prayer.' He replied, 'I am very much worried and in great debt, O Messenger of Allah!' The Prophet said, 'Let me teach you words to say so that Allah will remove your worries and settle your debt?' He exclaimed, 'Of course, O, Messenger of Allah.' The Prophet said, 'Say in morning and evening, "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from all worry and grief. I seek refuge in You from incapacity and slackness. I seek refuge in You from cowardice and niggardliness, and I seek refuge in You from being overcome by debt and being subjected to men".' The man said, 'When I did that, Allah removed all my worries and settled my debt'." (Abu Daw'ud)

Fiqh 4.132: When One is Faced with Something Difficult or Unpleasant

Abu Hurairah related that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "When one of you is afflicted with any misfortune he should say, 'Ina li llahi wa inna 'ilayhi Raji'un (We are for Allah, and to Him is our return),' even if it be merely losing one's shoe straps, for this is also a misfortune." (Ibn As-Sinni)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "A strong believer is better and dearer to Allah than a weak believer, and there is good in everyone, but cherish what gives you benefit in the Hereafter and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, don't say, 'If I had not done that, such and such thing would not have happened,' but say, 'Allah has ordained it so, and whatever He pleases He does,' because 'ifs' and 'buts' open the door for Satan."(Muslim)

Fiqh 4.132 a: What to Say When One is Struck by Doubt

Abu Hurairah reported that Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, said, "Satan comes to you and says, 'Who created so-and-so, until finally he says, 'Who created your Lord?' So, when he inspires such a doubt, one should seek refuge with Allah and give up such thoughts.'' (Bukhari and Muslim)

Another sahih hadith reports that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The people will continue raising questions until they ask, 'Allah created the creation, but who created Allah?' So whoever is faced with such a situation should say, 'I believe in Allah and His messengers'."

Fiqh 4.133: When One is Angry

Sulaiman b. Sard said, "I was sitting with the Prophet, peace be upon him, when two men abused each other and one of them became so angry that his face became swollen and changed. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, 'I know a word that that will cause him to relax, and this is, "I seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the accursed." (If he said these words) his anger will cool down.' (Muslim aud Bukhari)

Fiqh 4.133 a: Some Comprehensive Supplications

'Aishah says that the Prophet, peace be upon him, loved the short but comprehensive, meaningful supplications, more than others. We give below some of these supplications, which are a must for every believer.

Anas reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, frequently prayed, "O Allah, give us all the good of this world, and the good of the life hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the fire."

The Prophet, peace be upon him, visited one of the Muslims who had become as feeble as a chicken, and inquired about his health. Allah's Messenger, peace be him, asked, "Did you supplicate Allah for anything or beg Him for it?" He replied, "Yes, I asked in these words, 'O, God punish me in this world with the punishment that You are going to inflict on me in the Hereafter'." Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, remarked, "Hallowed be Allah! You have neither the power nor the forbearance to take upon yourself the burden of Allah's punishment. Why did you not say this, 'O Allah, grant us all the good of the world, and all the good of the Hereafter, and save us from the torment of the fire?"' Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, made this supplication for him and he was all right. (Muslim)

Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas heard his son praying, "O Allah, I ask You for Paradise and its blessings and its pleasure, and for such-and-such, and such-and-such. I seek refuge in You from Hell, from its chains, from its collars, and from such-and-such, and from such-and-such." At this Sa'd said, "You have asked Allah for a lot of good, and sought His refuge from a lot of evil. I heard Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, saying, 'There will be people who will exaggerate in supplication. For you it is sufficient to say, "O Allah, I seek from You all the good, whether I know it or I do not know it, and I seek Your refuge from all the evil, whether I know it or I do not know it.' (Ahmad and Nasa'i)

'Abdallah ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, prayed to Allah, "My Lord, help me and do not turn against me. Grant me victory, and do not grant victory over me. Plan on my behalf and do not plan against me. Guide me, and make the guidance easy for me. Grant me victory over those who act wrongfully toward me. O Allah, make me grateful to You, mindful of You, in awe of You, devoted to your obedience, humble, penitent, and ever turning to You in repentance. My Lord, accept my repentance, wash away my sins, answer my supplication, clearly establish my evidence, guide my heart, make my tongue true, and draw out malice from my breast."

Zaid ibn Arqam said, "I am not going to say anything except what Allah's Messenger, may peace be upon him, used to say. He used to supplicate, 'O Allah, I seek refuge in You from incapacity, from sloth, from cowardice, from miserliness, from old age, and from the torment of the grave. O Allah, grant my soul righteousness, and purify it, for You are the Best Purifier. You are the Protecting friend, and Guardian. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the knowledge that does not benefit, from a heart that does not fear You, from a soul that is uncontented, and from supplication to which You do not respond." (Muslim)

The Prophet, peace be upon him, exclaimed to his Companions, "O people, would you like to be serious in your supplications?" They replied, "Yes, O Allah's Messenger." He said, "Then ask Him, 'O Allah, help us in remembring You, in offering thanks to You, and in worshipping You properly'.' (Al-Hakim)

Ahmad reports that the Prophet, peace be upon him, advised: "Recite frequently, "Ya zha al-jalali w al-ikram (O, Possessor of Majesty and sublimity)"'.

The Prophet, peace be upon him, also used to say, "O Controller of the Hearts, make my heart firm in Your faith. The balance is in the hands of the Beneficent, the Exalted, the Mighty, and He honors some and brings others low thereby. (Ahmad)

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to supplicate, "O Allah, I seek refuge in You against deprivation of Your bounties, against loosing Your security, against the suddenness of Your wrath, and against everything that might cause Your anger."

The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to say, "O Allah, benefit me with what You have taught me, and teach me what is beneficial for me, and increase me in knowledge. Thanks be to Allah under all circumstances, and I seek Allah's refuge from the plight of the people of the fire.' (At-Tirmizhi)

When (his daughter) Fatimah came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, asking him to give her a servant, he said, "Say, 'O Allah, the Lord of the seven heavens, and the magnificent throne, our Lord and the Lord of all things, the Revealer of the Torah, Injil, and the Qur'an, The Splitter and Grower of the seed grain and date stone, I seek Your refuge against the evil of all things that You hold under Your control. You are the First, there is nothing before You. You are the Last, and there is nothing after You. You are the Manifest and there is nothing above You, You are Innermost and there is nothing beyond You. Remove the burden of debt from us and relieve us from want'.' (Muslim)

The Prophet, peace be upon him, also used to supplicate, "O Allah, I beseech You for guidance, virtuousness, chastity, and detachment from the world."

'Abdallah Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, seldom left an assembly without using these supplications for his Companions: "O Allah, apportion to us the fear of You that will stand between us and acts of disobedience to You, and the obedience to You that will bring us to Your Paradise, and the certainty sufficient for You to make the calamities of this world easy for us. Grant us enjoyment of our hearing, our sight, and our power as long as You grant us life, and do the same for those who inherit from us. Grant us victory over those who have wronged us and help us against those who are hostile to us. Let no calamity befall our din, do not let worldly affairs become our greatest concern or all that we know about, and do not let those rule over us who do not show us mercy." (Reported by Tirmizhi, who considers it a sound hadith)

Fiqh 4.136: Invoking Blessings on the Prophet

Allah says, "Allah and His angels send blessings to the Prophet, O you who believe! Send blessings to him, and salute him with all respect."

Fiqh 4.136 a: What is Meant by Invoking Blessings on the Prophet?

Abual-'Aliyah said, "Allah's sending blessings to the Prophet, peace be upon him, means that He praises him in front of the angels, and the blessings of angels mean their supplications invoking blessings on the Prophet.' (Bukhari) Sufian Al-Thawri and other scholars said, "Blessings of the Lord mean His mercy, and the blessings of the angels refer to their supplications and seeking forgiveness." (Tirmizhi) Commenting on the Qur'anic verse 33.56, Ibn Kathir said, "In this verse Allah, the Exalted, informed His servants about the revered status that His Prophet and servant occupies with Him in the higher assembly. He revealed that He praises him in the company of the angels close to Him, and that the angels pray for him, and that He has commanded the inhabitants of the lower world to send their salutations and greetings to the Prophet, so that the lower and the higher worlds would join together in his praise. On this subject there are many hadith. Some of these are given below:

Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-'As reported that he heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying, "If anyone invokes blessings upon me once, Allah will bestow blessings upon him ten times over." (Muslim)

Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The people nearest to me on the Day of Judgment will be the ones most conscientious in invoking blessings upon me." Tirmizhi reported this hadith, and he considers it a sound hadith. The words "nearest to me" here mean the ones most deserving of the Prophet's intercession and nearest to him in station.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Do not turn my grave into a site of festivities, but send greetings to me for your greetings are raised to me wherever you might be." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud with a sound chain of authorities)

Aus reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The best of your days is Friday, so send more and more greetings to me on it, for your greetings are presented to me." They asked, "How are our greetings presented to you while you are dead and your body is turned into dust?" He replied, "Allah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the prophets." (Abu Daw'ud and Nasa'i)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "When any Muslim sends greetings to me, Allah returns my soul to me so that I may respond to his greetings." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud with a sound chain of authorities)

Ahmad recorded that Abu Talha Al Ansari said, "The Prophet, peace be upon him, woke up one day cheerful and beaming. His companions exclaimed, 'O Prophet of Allah, you woke up today cheerful and beaming.' He replied, 'Yes! A messenger of Allah, the Mighty and the Glorified, came to me and said, "If anyone from your ummah sends you a salutation, Allah will record for him ten good deeds, wipe off ten of his sins, and raise him thereby ten degrees in rank, and He will return his salutation with a similar salutation".' Ibn Kathir considers this a sound hadith.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Whoever desires to be given (his reward) in full measure, should send salutations to us - the members of my family - and should say, 'O Allah, shower blessings upon Muhammad, the Prophet, his wives, the mothers of the believers, his descendants, and the members of his family, as you showered blessings upon the family of Ibrahim. You are the Praiseworthy and Glorious." (Related by Abu Daw'ud and Nasa'i)

Abu ibn Ka'ab said, "When two-thirds of the night had passed, the Prophet, peace be upon him, would get up and say, 'O people, remember Allah, remember Allah. The great commotion has come, followed by more commotions. Death has come with all that it has in store. Death has come with all that it has in store.' I said, 'O messenger of Allah, I invoke blessings to you a great deal. How much of my prayer should I reserve for invoking [such] blessings upon you?' The Prophet replied, 'Whatever you want.' I asked, 'A quarter of it?' He said, 'Whatever you wish. If you increase it, that would be better for you.' I asked, 'Half of it?' He repeated, 'Whatever you wish, but if you increase it, that would be better for you.' I asked, 'Two-thirds of it?' He said, 'Whatever you wish. If you increase it, that would be better for you.' I said, 'I devote my whole prayer to invoking blessings on you (i.e. I pray for you wherever I am).' He concluded, 'Thus will you be relieved of your anxiety, and your sins forgiven'." (Related by Tirmizhi)

Fiqh 4.138: Sending Salutations to the Prophet on Hearing His Name. Is this Obligatory?

Some Muslim scholars hold that it is obligatory to send salutations to the Prophet, i.e. invoke blessings upon him, each time one hears his name mentioned. They, like Al-Tahawi and Al-Halimi, base their argument on a hadith recorded by Tirmizhi, which he grades as sound, from Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "May the nose of the person in whose presence I am mentioned be covered with dirt if he does not invoke blessings upon me. And let the nose of that person be smeared with dust who finds the month of Ramadan but lets it come to an end without securing pardon for himself. And may the nose of the person be smeared wlth dust whose aged parents, both of them or one of them, are still living, and who fails them (i.e. by serving them) to enter Paradise." (Related by Tirmizhi, who said it is an authentic hadith)

In a report related by Abu Zharr we read, "the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, 'The most miserly among people is the one who fails to invoke blessings upon me when my name is mentioned in his or her presence'."

Other scholars are of the opinion that invoking Allah's blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, only once while in a gathering is obligatory. After that it is no longer necessary, though it is preferred to do so. This is based on a hadith from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "If some people sitting together in an assembly do not remember Allah in it, nor invoke Allah's blessings upon His Prophet, peace be upon him, they will be sorry on the Day of Judgment. Allah may either punish them or forgive them." (Tirmizhi)

Fiqh 4.139: Invoking Allah's Blessings Upon the Prophet when Writing his Name

The scholars hold it desirable to invoke Allah's blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, each time one writes his name. But this is not mentioned in any hadith, so none can be used to support this view. Al Khatib al-Baghdadi said, "I saw the handwriting of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and I found that often he wrote the name of the Prophet, peace be upon him, without invoking Allah's blessings upon him." Then he added, "It has come to my knowledge that he used to invoke Allah's blessings upon the Prophet verbally."

An-Nawawi said, "When invoking Allah's blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, we should combine prayers for peace and blessings upon him (by saying Salalahu 'alaihi was sallam), and should not confine it to one of these saying either Sallahu 'alaihi (May Allah shower His blessings upon him) or 'Alaihi as-salaam (peace be upon him)'."

Fiqh 4.139 a: Invoking Blessings Upon the Prophets

It is preferred to invoke Allah's blessings upon the Prophets and angels separately. As to others than the Prophets, there is consensus among scholars that Allah's blessings may be invoked for them along with others (but not separately). The statement of the Prophet, peace be upon him, has been cited above, "O Allah invoke blessings on Muhammad, the Prophet, and his wives, the mothers of the believers ..." It is disliked, however, to invoke blessings for them on their own. For instance, one should not say, "Umar, may Allah shower His blessings upon him."

Fiqh 4.139 b: How to Invoke Blessings and Peace Upon the Prophet

Abu Mas'ud Al-Ansari reported the following account from Bashir ibn Sa'd: "I asked Prophet, peace be upon him, 'O Messenger of Allah, Allah has commanded us to invoke blessings upon you. How should we do it?' The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, remained silent until we wished we had not asked him. Then he told us to say,

'Allahumma salli 'ala muhammadin wa 'ala ali muhammadin kama sallayta 'ala ali ibrahima wa barik 'ala muhammadin wa 'ala ali muhammadin kama barakta 'ala ibrahima wa 'ala ali ibrahima fil 'alamin, innaka hammidum majeed (O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You blessed the family of Ibrahim, and give baraka to Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You gave baraka to the family of Ibrahim, in all the worlds. You are worthy of Praise and Glorious), and then he told us to give the taslim as you have learned it." (Muslim)

Abdullah ibn Mas'ud said, "When you invoke blessings upon the Prophet do it in the best manner, because you don't know whether or not your blessings may be presented to him. The Companions asked him to teach them how to do it. He replied, ' Say, "Allahumma 'ij'al salawataka wa rahmataka wa barakataka 'ala sayyidil mursalin, wa imamal mutaqadimin wa khatimin nahiyyin muhammadin 'abduka wa rasuluka imamal khair wa qaidil khair wa rasulir rahmati. Allahumma b'athu maqaman yaghbatuhu bihil awalun. Allahumma salli 'ala muhammadin wa 'ala ali muhammadin kama sallaita 'ala ibrahima wa ali ibrahima innaka hamidum majeed . Allahumma barik 'ala muhammadin wa 'ala ali muhammadin kama barakta 'ala ibrahima wa 'ala ali ibrahima innak hamidum majeed (O Allah, shower Your blessings, mercy, and favors on the Chief of the Messengers, and the Chief of the Foremost, the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, Your servant and Your Messenger, the leader of the virtuous, the chief of the virtuous, the Messenger of Mercy, grant him a station that is the happy goal of the most excellent, O Allah, bless Muhammad and his family as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. You are indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious. O Allah, give baraka to Muhammad and his family as you gave baraka to Ibrahim and his family, You are indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious"'." (Ibn Majah)

Fiqh 4.140: Going on a Journey

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Travel and be sound in health, and fight (in the cause of Allah) and be enriched." (Ahmad. Almanawi considers this a sound hadith)

Fiqh 4.140 a: Leaving One's House for What is Dear to Allah

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "No one leaves his home without two banners waiting at his door, one of them in the hands of an angel and the other in the hands of a devil. If he intends to do what pleases Allah the angel will follow him with his standard, and he will remain under the banner of the angel until he returns to his house, but if he sets out for what displeases Allah the devil with his banner will follow him about, and he will remain under the devil's banner until he returns to his house." (Ahmad and At-Tabarani. Its chain of authorities is sound)

Fiqh 4.141: Consultation and Istikharah Before Setting out on a Journey

Istikhara (Arabic) means to ask Allah to guide one to the right thing concerning any affair in one's life, especially when one has to choose between two permissible alternatives. A traveller should consult good righteous persons before setting out on a journey, because Allah says, "And consult them (O Prophet) in affairs (of moment)," (Qur'an 3.159) and one of the characteristics of the believers is that "they (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation" (Qur'an 42.38).

Qatadah said, "Every people who seek the pleasure of Allah and consult with one another are guided to the best course in their affairs."

The traveller should also make istikharah and seek guidance from Allah. Sa' d ibn Waqas reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Istikharah (seeking guidance from Allah) is one of the distinct favors (of Allah) upon man, and a good fortune for the son of Adam is to be pleased with the judgment of Allah. And a misfortune of the son of Adam is his failure to make istikharah (seeking Allah's guidance), and a misfortune for the son of Adam is his displeasure with the judgment of Allah." Ibn Taimiyyah said, "He who seeks guidance from the Creator and consults the creatures will never regret it."

Fiqh 4.141 a: How to make Istikharah

For this purpose one should pray two non-obligatory raka'at of prayer, even if they are of the regular sunnah prayers or a prayer for entering the mosque, and so on, during any time of the day or night. One should recite in them whatever one wishes of the Qur'an, after reciting al-Fatihah. Then one should praise Allah and invoke blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him. After this one should supplicate to Allah with the following supplication, which Jabir Ibn 'Abdullah has reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him, when he related, "The Prophet, peace be upon him, taught us how to make Istikharah in all (our) affairs, just as he taught us various surahs of the Qur'an. He told us, 'If anyone of you considers doing something he should offer a two-rak'at prayer other than the obligatory prayers, and then say (after the prayer), "Allahumma inni astakhiruka bi'ilmika. wa astaqdiruka bi-qudratika, wa as'aluka min fadlika al-azimfa-innaka taqdiru wala aqdiru, wa ta'lamu wala a ' lamu, wa anta 'allamu-l-ghuyub. Allahumma, in kunta ta' lamu anna hazhaI-amra khairun lifi dini wa ma'ashi wa aqibati amri (or 'ajili amri wa'ajilihi) f aqdirhu li wa yas-sirhu li thumma barik li fihi, wa in kunta ta'llamu anna hazha-l-amra sharrun lifi dini wa ma'ashi wa-aqibati amri (orfi'ajili amri wa ajilihi) fasrifhu anni was-rifni'anhu. Wa aqdir li al-khaira haithu kana thumma ardini bihi (O Allah ! I ask guidance from Your knowledge, and Power from Your Might and I ask for Your great blessings. You are capable and I am not. You know and I do not and You know the unseen. O Allah! If You know that this thing is good for my din and my subsistence and for my Hereafter - (or say, If it is better for my present and later needs) - then ordain it for me and make it easy for me to obtain, and then bless me in it. If You know that this thing is harmful to me in my din and subsistence and in the Hereafter--(or say, If it is worse for my present and later needs)--then keep it away from me, and keep me away from it. And ordain for me whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it)."' The Prophet, may peace be upon him, added that then the person should mention his need."

There is nothing authentic concerning anything specific that is to be recited in the prayer nor is there any authentic report concerning how many times one should repeat it.

An-Nawawi holds that "after making istikharah, a person must do what he is wholeheartedly inclined to do and feels good about doing and should not insist on doing what he had desired to do before making the istikharah. And if his feelings change, he should leave what he had intended to do, for otherwise he is not leaving the choice to Allah, and would not be honest in seeking aid from Allah's power and knowledge. Sincerity in seeking Allah's choice, means that one should completely abandon what one desired oneself."

Fiqh 4.142: Travelling on Thursday is Preferred

Bukhari reports that the Prophet, peace be upon him, seldom set out on a journey except on Thursday.

Fiqh 4.142 a: Offering Two Raka'at Before the Journey

Al-Mut'am ibn al-Miqdam reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "No one leaves anything behind with his family better than the two raka'at of prayers that he offers with them while intending to go on a journey." (At-Tabarani and Ibn 'Asakir as a mursal hadith)

Fiqh 4.142 b: It is Preferred to have Companions for the Journey

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, forbade loneliness, i.e., that a man should sleep alone at night, or go on a journey alone. (Ahmad)

Umar ibn Shu'aib reported from his father and he from his grandfather that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "A single horseman (traveller) is a devil, two are two devils, but three are a caravan."

Fiqh 4.143: Bidding Farewell to One's Relatives, Asking them for Prayers, and Praying for Them

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Anyone intending to go on a journey should say to those staying behind, 'I commend you to Allah Whose trusts are never lost'." (Ibn As-Sinni)

'Umar reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "When something is entrusted to the care of Allah, He guards it." (Ahmad)

It is reported from Abu Huraraih that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "When one of you intends to go on a journey, he should bid farewell to his brothers, for Allah will make their prayers a means of good."

It is sunnah that the members of the family, as well as the friends and those who see the traveller off should pray for him as in the following prayer transmitted from the Prophet.

Salim reported that when someone wanted to leave for a journey 'Ibn Umar would say to him, "Come over to me so that I may bid you farewell as the Prophet, peace upon him, used to bid us farewell," and that he used to say, "To Allah I commend your din (Islam), your trust (That is his family, those he leaves behind, and his property), and the conclusion of your deeds."'

In another report we read that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, bid farewell to a man he would hold his hand and would not leave it until the man himself dropped the Prophet' s hand. The rest of the hadith is similar to the one given above. Tirmizhi considers this a sound (hasan sahih) hadith.

Anas reported that a man came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and said, "O Allah's Messenger, I intend to go on a journey, so please give me provision for the journey." The Prophet, peace be upon him, replied, "May Allah provide you with piety (taqwa)." The man said, "Give me some more provision." The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "And may Allah forgive your sins." The man said, "Give me still more." The Prophet, peace be upon him, then replied, "And may Allah facilitate good for you wherever you may be." Tirmizhi considers this a sound hadith. (Reported by Abu Daw'ud and Tirmizhi, who considers it to be a sound, hasan sahih, hadith)

Abu Hurairah reported that a man said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, "O Allah's Messenger, I intend to proceed on a journey, so give me some advice." The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to him, "Fear Allah, the Mighty and the Exalted, and glorify Him on every elevated piece of ground." When the man turned away to go, the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "O Allah, make the distance short for him, and make his journey easy for him." Tirmizhi considers this a sound hadith.

Fiqh 4.144: Asking the Traveller "Pray for Us"

'Umar ibn al-Khattab reports, "I sought permission of the Prophet, peace be upon him, to perform 'umrah. He gave me permission and said, 'My brother, do not forget me in your prayers' ." 'Umar reported further, "This was a word more pleasing to me than the entire wealth of the world." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud and Tirmizhi, who holds it to be a sound hadith)

Fiqh 4.144 a: Supplications for a Journey

It is preferred for a traveller to say when leaving home, "Bismillahi tawakaltu 'alallah wa la haula wala quwwata illa billah, Allahumma inni auzhu bika an adilla au udalla au azilla au uzalla au azlima au uzlama au aj-hala au yuj-hala 'alayya (In the name of Allah, I repose my trust in Allah, and there is neither power nor any might except with Allah. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from leading others astray or being led astray, causing others to slip or being caused to slip by others, or doing wrong or be wronged by others, or behaving foolishly or being treated foolishly by others)." The traveller may choose whatever he wants from the supplications reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him. Some of these supplications are given below.

Ibn ' Abbas reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, proceeded on journey, he would say, "O Allah, You are the Companion in the journey, and the One Who looks after the family. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from worthless companions on the journey, and from finding harm when I return, O Allah, make the length of the journey short for us, and the journey easy for us." And when he returned he would say, "We are returning repentant, worshipping our Lord and praising Him." And when he went to his family he would say, "Repentant, repentant, we return to our Lord, the sin visits us not." (Reported by Ahmad, At-Tabarani, and Al-Bazar with a sound chain of authorities)

Abdullah ibn Sarjis reported that when Allah's Messenger, may peace be upon him, set forth on a journey, he would say, "O Allah, I seek refuge (with You) from the hardships of the journey and finding evil changes on my return, and disgrace after honor, and the curse of the oppressed, and a sad disarray in my property and family." And when he retumed he would use similar words, except that he would mention his family before his property, and would say "... a sad disarray in my family and property.' (Ahmad and Muslim)

Fiqh 4.145: What a Traveller Should Say on Riding

'Ali ibn Rabi'a reported that a riding animal was brought for 'Ali to ride. When he put his foot in the stirrups he said, "In the name of Allah." When he was seated on it he said, "Glory to Him Who has subjected this (means of transportation) to our (use), for we could never have accomplished this (by ourselves). And to our Lord, surely, must we return." (Qur'an 43.13-14) Then he praised Allah three times, and glorified Him (i.e. said Allahu akbar), and then said, "Subhanaka la ilaha illa ant, qad zalamtu nafsi, faghfirli, innahu la yaghfiru zhunuba illa anta (Glory to You (O Allah), there is no god but You, I have indeed wronged my soul, so forgive me, verily none can forgive sins except You)." Then he laughed, whereupon I asked him, "Why did you laugh, O Chief of the Believers?" He replied, "I saw the Prophet, peace be upon him, doing as I did." At this I asked him, "Why did you laugh, O Allah's messenger?" He replied, "Our Lord is pleased when his servant says ' My Lord, forgive me, ' and He says, 'My servant knows that there is none to forgive sins except Me'." (Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim, who said it is sound according to the criterion of Muslim)

Al-Azdi recorded Abdullah Ibn 'Umar's narration that whenever Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, mounted his camel to set out on a journey, he glorified Allah (uttered Allah-o-Akbar) three times, and then said, "Glory to Him Who has subjected these to our (use), for we could never have accomplished this (by ourselves). And to our Lord, surely, must we return. O Allah, we seek virtue and piety from You on this journey of ours, and actions that please You. O Allah, lighten this journey of ours, and make its distance easy for us. O Allah, You are (our) companion during the journey, and guardian of (our) family. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the hardship of the journey, the gloominess of the sights, and from finding misfortunes in property and family on our return." And the Prophet, peace be upon him, uttered these words in addition, "We are returning repentant, worshipping our Lord and praising Him." (Ahmad and Muslim)

Fiqh 4.146: What a Traveller Should Say at Nightfall

Abdullah ibn 'Umar reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was travelling or fighting (in the cause of Allah) and night came on, he said, "O earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allah. I seek refuge in Allah from your evil, the evil of what you contain, the evil of what has been created in you, and the evil of what creeps upon you. I seek refuge in Allah from lions, from large black snakes, from other snakes, from scorpions, from the evil of jinn who inhabit settlements, and from a parent and his offspring.'' (Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud)

Fiqh 4.146 a: What a Traveller Should Say on Stopping at a Place

Khaulah, daughter of Hakim As-Sallammiya, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "If anyone stops at a place and then says, 'I seek refuge with all the perfect words of Allah from the evil of his creatures,' nothing will harm him until he departs from that place." (Reported by the Group except Bukhari and Abu Daw'ud)

Fiqh 4.147: On Approaching a Village or Place

'Ata ibn Abi Marwan relates from his father that Ka'ab swore to him by Him Who split the sea for Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, that Suhaib informed him that whenever the Prophet, peace be upon him, saw a village that he wanted to enter, he always supplicated, "Allahumma rabbis samawati sab' i wa ma azlalna wa rabbul ardinas sab' i wa ma aqlalna wa rabbush sayatini wa ma adlalna wa rabbur riyyahi wa ma zaraina as'aluka khaira hazhihil qaryata wa khaira ahlaha wa khaira mafiha wa na'uzhu bika min sharriha wa sharri ahliha wa sharri mafiha (O Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and what they overshadow, Lord of the seven earths and what they carry, and Lord of the devils and those whom they mislead, and Lord of the winds and what they scatter about, I ask You of the good of this village, the good of its people and the good it has, and seek Your protection from its evil, and the evil of its people, and the evil in it)." (Reported by Nasa'i, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim who considers this a sound hadith)

Ibn 'Umar reported, "We were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, on a journey. When he saw a town that he wanted to enter he would say, 'O Allah, bless us in it' three times, and then 'O Allah grant us sustenance from its fruits, and put our love in (the hearts of) its people, and put the love of its righteous people in our hearts'.'' (Reported by At-Tabarani in his Al-Awsar with a sound chain of authorities)

A'ishah reported that whenever the Prophet, peace be upon him, approached a place that he intended to enter he would say, 'O Allah I ask You of the good in it, and the good of what you have placed in it, and I seek Your refuge from its evil and the evil of what You have placed in it. O Allah, give us its fruits and protect us from its plagues, and put our love in the hearts of its people and put the love of its righteous people in our hearts.' (Reported by As-Sinni)

Fiqh 4.147 a: What the Traveller Should say at Dawn

Abu Hurairah reported that during a journey when the day broke, the Prophet, peace be upon him, would say, "A listener has heard that we praise Allah for His favors upon us. Our Lord, accompany us and grant us Your favors. We seek protection of Allah from the Fire.' (Muslim)

Fiqh 4.148: On Going Uphill, Downhill, or Returning

Jabir said, "We used to say Allahu akbar when we went up a high place, and subhanallah when we went down a valley." (Bukhari)

Ibn ' Umar reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, returned from hajj (or 'umrah). When he approached a path high up in mountain or one that was difficult, he would back up three steps and say. "There is no god but Allah, He is One. He has no partners. To Him belongs all dominion and praise, and He has power over all things. We are returning repentant, worshipping, prostrating, praising our Lord. He kept His promise. And gave victory to His servant, and defeated all the confederates alone."

Fiqh 4.148 a: On Boarding a Ship

Al-Hussain ibn Ali reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The security for my community against drowning is to say, while boarding a ship (or a boat), 'Bismillahi majraiha wa mursaha inna rahhi laghafoor un raheem (Bukhari), wa ma qadarullaha haqa qadrihi, wal ardu jami'an qabadatuhu yaumal qiyyamati was samawatu matwiyyatun hi yameenihi subhanallahi 'amma yushrakun (Qur'an 11.41) (In the name of Allah, whether it move or be at rest! For my Lord is, be sure, Oft-Forgiving, Most merciful! No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him, On the day of Judgment the whole of the earth will be but His handful, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand, Glory to Him! High is He above the partners they attribute to Him!)" This is reported by As-Sinni.

Fiqh 4.149: Sailing in Rough Weather

It is not permissible to embark on a voyage when the sea is stormy and agitated. According to a hadith reported by Abu 'Umran al-Jawni some of the Companions told him that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Anyone who sleeps on a house-top that has no fence, and then falls and dies, he forfeits the protection of Allah, and anyone who sails while the sea is rough, and then perishes, he forfeits the protection of Allah." (Reported by Ahmad with a sound chain of authorities)