THE THIRD STAGE
The third and last stage of the life of the Messenger (peace
be upon him) embodies the fruitful results of his call to Islam, which
were the consequences of long-timed holy fights in the way of Allâh (Jihad),
troubles, toil, disturbances, trials and a lot of bloody conflicts and
battles, which lasted for over twenty years.
The conquest of Makkah was considered the most serious profit achieved
by Muslims during those years. For it affected the course of events and
consequently altered the Arabs’ whole life. It was a decisive distinction
between preconquest and post-conquest periods. For Quraish, at that time,
was in the eyes of Arabs the defenders and helpers of Arabs. Other Arabs
are only their ancillaries. The submission of Quraish is, therefore, estimated
to be a final elimination of paganism in the Arabian Peninsula.
THIS STAGE CANE BE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAIN PHASE:
The phase of:
(1) holy wars and fighting.
(2) the tribes and people’s race to embrace Islam.
Being so close and rather inseparable, the two phases of this stage intervene
in such a way that a happening of one phase occurs during the progress
of the other. However, we have preferred — for expository purposes — to
deal with these two phases distinctively. The fighting phase was given
the priority in order, due to the fact that it is more intimate and fit
than the other.
The conquest of Makkah which came forth as a consequence
of a swift blow astounded both the Arabs and other tribes who realized
that they were doomed and had to submit to the new situation as a fait
accompli. Some of the fierce, powerful proud tribes did not submit and
favoured resistance. Ahead of these were the septs of Hawazin and Thaqif.
Nasr, Jashm and Sa‘d bin Bakr and people of Bani Hilal — all of whom of
Qais ‘Ailan. They thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender
to such a victory. So they met Malik bin ‘Awf An-Nasri and made up their
mind to proceed fighting against the Muslims.
When Malik bin ‘Awf — the general leader — decided to march
and fight the Muslims, he made his countrypeople take their wealth, women
and children with them to Awtas — which is a valley in Hawazin land and
is quite near Hunain. It differs from Hunain in its being adjacent to
Dhi-Al-Majaz which is around ten miles from Makkah in ‘Arafat’s direction.
THE WAR-EPERIENCED MAN WRONGS THE LEADER'S JUDGEMENT:
As soon as they had camped in Awtas, people crowded round
Malik. The old sane Duraid bin As-Simmah, who was well-known as a war-experienced
man, and who was among those who gathered round Malik, asked: “What valley
are we in?” “In Awtas,” they said. “What a good course it is for horses!
It is neither a sharp pointed height nor a loosed soiled plain. What?
Why do I hear camels’ growling, the donkeys’ braying, the children’s cries
and the sheep bleating?” asked Duraid. They said: “Malik bin ‘Awf had
made people bring their women, properties and children with them.” So
he called Malik and asked him what made him do such a thing. Malik said
that his aim was to have everybody’s family and properties around them
so that they fight fiercely to protect them.” “I swear by Allâh that you
are nothing but a shepherd,” answered Duraid, “Do you believe that there
is anything whatsoever, can stand in the way of a defeated one or stop
him from fleeing? If you win the battle you avail nothing but a man with
a sword and a spear; but if you lose you will bring disgrace on your people
and properties,” then he resumed his talk and went on wondering about
some septs and their leaders. “O Malik, thrusting the distinguished people
of Hawazin into the battlefield will avail you nothing. Raise them up
to where they can be safe. Then make the young people mount their horses
and fight. If you win, those whom you tarried will follow you, but if
you were the loser it would be a loss of a battle, but your kinsmen, people
and properties would not be lost.”
But Malik, the general leader, refused this suggestion. “By
Allâh,” he said, “I will not do such a thing. You must have grown a senile.
Hawazin have to obey me, or else I will lean my body against this sword
so that it penetrates through my back.” He rejected any sort of contribution
of Duraid’s in that concern.
“We obey you,” said his people, Duraid consequently said:
“Today is a day that I have not missed but surely I will not be tempted
The spies that Malik had already dispatched to spy Muslim
forces, returned with their limbs cut off. “Woe unto you! What happened
to you?” Said Malik. They said: “We have seen distinguished people on
spotted horsebacks. What you see, would not have happened if we had been
News about the enemy’s marching were conveyed to the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) , so he sent out Al-Aslami with orders to
mix with people, stay with them so that he would be able to know their
news and to convey it to the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) when
he turns back. That was exactly what he managed to do.
On Shawwal, the nineteenth, the captive day, the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) left Makkah accompanied by twelve thousand
Muslims. Ten thousand of those had previously shared in Makkah Conquest.
A great number of the other two thousand, who were Makkans, had recently
embraced Islam. That march was on the nineteenth day of his conquest to
Makkah. He borrowed a hundred armours with their equipment from Safwan
bin Omaiyah. He appointed ‘Itab bin Usaid as a governor over Makkah. When
it was evening time, a horseman came to the Messenger of Allâh (peace
be upon him) and said: “I have climbed up so and so mountains and came
across Hawazin with their riding camels, livestock and sheep. Hawazin
wholly were gathered together there.” The Messenger of Allâh (peace be
upon him) smiled then and said: “They will all be Muslims’ spoils tomorrow,
if Allâh will.” That night Anas bin Abi Murthid Al-Ghanawi volunteered
On their way to Hunain they saw a great green Nabk
plant, that was called Dhat-Anwat (the one with suspenders). That
was because the Arabs used to hang their weapons on it, slay beasts under
it and keep to it. So some of army members asked the Messenger of Allâh
(peace be upon him) to make them a Nabk with suspenders as the
one they had. “Allâh is the Greatest of all!” He said, “I swear by the
One in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s soul, that you have just said what the
people of Moses said to him. They said ‘Make us a god as the one they
have.’ Surely you are ignorant people. These are Sunnah, but you
will follow and comply with the modes of life of those who preceded you.”
Seeing how great in number the army was, some of them said:
“We shall not be defeated.” Their statement sounded hard upon the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him):
On Wednesday night the tenth of Shawwal, the Muslim army
arrived at Hunain. Malik bin ‘Awf, who had previously entered the valley
by night, gave orders to his army to hide inside the valley and lurk for
the Muslims on roads, entrances, narrow hiding places. His orders to his
men were to hurl stones at Muslims whenever they caught sight of them
and then to make a one-man attack against them.
At early dawn the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him)
started mobilizing his army and distributing posts and flags to people.
In the dark and just before dawn the Muslims moved towards Hunain Valley.
They started descending into it unaware of the presence of an enemy lurking
for them inside the valley. So at the moment they were camping, arrows
began showering intensively at them, whereas the enemy’s battalions started
a fierce attack against the Muslims, who had to retreat in disorder and
utter confusion. It was such a shatteringly defeat that Abu Sufyan bin
Harb, who had recently embraced Islam, said that their retreat would not
stop till they got to the Red Sea. Jablah or Kildah bin Al-Junacommented
on that by saying: “Surely magic has grown inactive today.”
The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) turned to the
right and said: “Come on, people! I am the Messenger of Allâh. I am Muhammad,
the son of Abdullah.” Those who stoodfast by him were only few Emigrants
and some of his kinsmen. The matchless bravery of the Prophet (peace be
upon him) was then brought to light. He went on and on in his attempts
to make his mule standfast in the face of the disbelievers while saying
“Truly saying, I am the Prophet
I am the (grand) son of Abdul Muttalib.”
However, Abu Sufyan, who was then holding the rein of the
Prophet’s mule, and Al-‘Abbas, who was holding its stirrup; were endeavouring
to make it halt. The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) dismounted
and asked his Lord to render him help.
“O, Allâh, send down Your Help!”
The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) ordered his uncle
Al-‘Abbas — who was a sonorous voiced man — to call out on the followers.
As loudly as he could, Al-‘Abbas shouted: “Where are the lancers?” “By
Allâh,” Al-‘Abbas said, “Upon hearing my voice calling them back, they
turned round to the battlefield as if they had been oryxes (wild cows)
tending towards their calves.”
“Here we are, at your service. Here we are. ” They said.
There you see them trying to stop their camels and reverse to the battle.
He who was unable to force his camel to turn back, would take his armour,
fling it round his neck, and hastily dismount his camel with his weapon
in his hand letting his camel move freely and run towards the voice source.
Voices would grow louder and louder till a hundred of them gathered round
the Prophet and resumed the fight.
Those who were called out upon next were Al-Ansar, the Helpers,
“O, folks of Al-Ansar! Folks of Al-Ansar!”
The last group to be called out upon were Bani Al-Harith
bin Al-Khazraj. Muslims battalions poured successively into the battlefield
in the same manner that they had left it. The stamina of both parties
was superb. Both of them stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) was so eagerly and furiously watching the
battle that he said:
“Now the fight has grown fierce.”
Picking up a handful of earth, he hurled it at their faces
“May your faces be shameful.”
Their eyes were thick with dust and the enemy began to retreat
in utter confusion.
Few hours had elapsed since the earth-handful was hurled
at the enemy’s faces, when they were shatteringly defeated. About seventy
men of Thaqif alone were killed, and the Muslims plundered all their riding
camels, weapons and cattle.
Allâh, Glory is to Him, alluded to this sudden change in
the Qur’ân when He said:
“…and on the Day of Hunain (battle) when you rejoiced
at your great number but it availed you naught and the earth, vast
as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight.
Then Allâh did send down His Sakinah (calmness, tranquillity,
and reassurance, etc.) on the Messenger [Muhammad (peace be upon
him) ] and on the believers, and sent down forces (angels) which
you saw not, and punished the disbelievers. Such is the recompense
of disbelievers.” [9:25,26]
After their defeat, some enemy troops headed for Ta’if,
others to Nakhlah and Awtas. A group of Muslims headed by Abu ‘Amir Al-Ash‘
ari, were despatched to chase the enemy, some skirmishes took place during
which Abu ‘Amir was killed.
A similar battalion of horsemen pursued the idolaters who
threaded the track to Nakhlah and caught up with Duraid bin As-Simmah,
who was killed by Rabi‘a bin Rafi‘. After collecting the booty, the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) left for Ta’if to face the greatest number
of the defeated idolaters. The booty was six thousand captives, twenty
four thousand camels; over forty thousand sheep and four thousand silver
ounces. The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) gave orders that booty
should be confined at Al-J‘iranah and ordained Mas‘ud bin ‘Amr Al-Ghifari
to be in charge of it. It was only when he was entirely free from Ta’if
Campaign, that one of the captives As-Shaimâ’, the daughter of Al-Harith
As-Sa‘diya, the Messenger’s foster sister was brought to the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) , she introduced herself to him. Upon recognizing
her by a certain mark, he honoured her, spread for her his garment and
seated her on it. He was graceful and released her and made her turn back
to her people.
Ta’if Campaign is in fact an extension of Hunain Ghazwah;
that is because the majority of the defeated troops of Hawazin and Thaqif
went into Ta’if with the general commander — Malik bin ‘Awf An-Nasri —
and fortified themselves within it. So upon finishing with Hunain Invasion,
he gathered the booty at Al-Ji‘ranah in the very month (i.e. Shawwal)
and in the eighth year A.H.
A vanguard battalion of a thousand men led by Khalid bin
Al-Waleed marched towards At-Ta’if. Whereas the Messenger of Allâh (peace
be upon him) proceeded passing through Nakhlah Al-Yamaniyah, Qarn Al-Manazil
and through Laiyah. At Laiyah there was a castle that belonged to Malik
bin ‘Awf, so the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) gave orders to
have it destroyed. He resumed his march till he got to Ta’if. There he
dismounted, camped near its castle and laid siege to the castle inhabitants;
but not for long.
How long the siege continued, is still a matter of disagreement.
It however stands between 10-20 days.
A lot of arrow-shooting and rock-hurling occurred during
the siege. For as soon as the Muslims laid siege round the castle, its
people started shooting arrows against them. The arrows were so intense
and fierce that they looked as if they had been locusts on the move. A
number of Muslims were wounded and twelve were killed.
To be far from the arrow-range, the Muslims had to ascend
to a higher location and camped on — i.e. to what is now called At-Ta’if
Mosque. The Prophet (peace be upon him) set up a mangonel and shelled
the castle. Eventually a gap was made in the castle wall, through which
a number of Muslims managed to pass into the castle, sheltered by a wooden
tank, with the purpose of setting fire into it. Anyway, the enemy poured
down molten hot iron on them. Affected by this the Muslims stepped out
of the tank and were again exposed to arrow shooting and consequently
some of them were killed.
To force the enemy to surrender, the Prophet (peace be upon
him) tended to a war policy of burning and cutting the enemy’s crops.
His order was to cut their vineyards and burn them. Seeing that the Muslims
started rapidly cutting and burning their vines, they implored the Prophet
(peace be upon him) to stop and have mercy on them for the sake of Allâh
and out of kinship motives. So the Prophet agreed. When the caller of
the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) called out unto people saying
“He whosoever descends and steps out of the castle is free.” Twenty-three
men came out. One of them was Abu Bakrah who tied himself to a wall and
let himself down by means of a small wheel, that would normally be used
for drawing up water from a well. The way he let himself down made the
Prophet nickname him “Abu Bakrah”, i.e. the man with the wheel. The Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) set them all free and entrusted each one
of them to a Muslim to care about their living affairs, which was too
hard for the castle folkspeople to bear.
Seeing that the siege lasted too long and that the castle
was immune and could stand any siege (for they had already stored a supply
that suffices for over a year) and that the Muslims were suffering — day
by day — from arrow-shots and heated iron hooks, the Messenger of Allâh
(peace be upon him) consulted Nawfal bin Mu‘âwiyah Ad-Daili about that.
He said: “They are like a fox hiding inside its burrow. If you stoodfast
at it you would catch it, but if you parted with it, no harm would afflict
you.” The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) decided to lift the siege
and depart. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, who was orderedby the Prophet to notify
people, said to them “If Allâh will, we are leaving the castle and going
back tomorrow.” As it was too hard for the Muslims to go back and leave
the castle unconquered they complained saying, “Should we go away while
the castle is still unopened?” His reply was: “Then, start fighting in
the morning.” In the morning they fought and were wounded. So when he
repeated this statement: “If Allâh will, we are leaving the castle and
going back tomorrow”, they were pleased and carried out the order submissively
and started moving, which made the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him)
As soon as they mounted and started moving the Messenger
(peace be upon him) said:
“Say! Here we are returning, repenting, worshipping
(Allâh) and to our Lord we offer praise.”
When the Messenger of Allâh was asked to invoke Allâh against
Thaqif, he said:
“O Allâh, guide Thaqif and bring them to us as Muslims.”
Upon returning and lifting the siege in Ta’if, the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) had stayed over ten nights at Al-Ji‘ranah
before starting to distribute the booty. Distribution delay was due to
the Prophet’s hope that Hawazin’s delegation might arrive and announce
their repentance and consequently reclaim their loss. Seeing that none
of them arrived, he started dividing the booty so as to calm down the
tribes’ chiefs and the celebrities of Makkah. The first to receive booty
and the ones who obtained the greatest number of shares were the people
who had recently embraced Islam.
Abu Sufyan bin Harb was given a hundred camels and forty
(gold) ounces and yet he said, “What about my son, Yazeed’s Share?” So
he was given the same quantity for his son as well. But yet he exclaimed:
“And what about the share of Mu‘âwiyah, my second son?” So the Prophet
(peace be upon him) gave Mu‘âwiyah as much as he gave his father and brother.
Hakeem bin Hizam was given a hundred camels, but he was given a hundred
more when he demanded. Safwan bin Omaiyah was given three hundred camels
- a hundred camels at each time. It is thus mentioned in Shifâ, Book by
Qadi Iyadh. The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave Al-Harith bin Harith
bin Kilda a hundred camels. He also gave some chiefs of Quraish and other
clans a hundred camels; he gave others fifty and some others had forty.
Eventually it was spread among people that “Muhammad grants
generously and fears not to grow poor.” This made bedouins gather around
him expecting to be given some wealth. They were so many that they forced
the Prophet (peace be upon him) to seek refuge against a tree and they
even took away his garment, “O people!“ He said, “Give me back my garment!
For I swear by the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s soul, that if I had
as many numerous camels as the number of Tihama trees, I would distribute
them among you. You know quite well that I am neither mean nor coward
or a liar.” Standing by his camel he plucked out a hair of his camel’s
hump and held it between his two fingers, lifted it up and said: “O people,
I swear by Allâh that I get nothing but one-fifth of your booty, and this
very fifth goes back to you.”
As soon as he had given the new converts, the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) ordered Zaid bin Thabit to fetch the booty
and summon people. Then he ordained shares to people. A footman’s share
was four camels and forty sheep, and a horseman would take twelve camels
and a hundred and twenty sheep. This distribution of booty was based on
a wise policy. In this world there are lots of people who know the truth
only when it comes through their stomachs and they do not recognize it
if it comes through their brains. The similitude of such people is as
the guidance of an animal to its herd by means of a bunch of clover held
at a constant distance off its mouth. The animal would try all the time
to catch it, so it would eventually go into the herd safely. In the same
way you have to do various kinds of temptations to make certain kind of
people familiarize Islam and be pleased with.
At first the Prophet’s policy of distribution was uncomprehended
by many a man. Therefore sharp-tongued people started expressing their
objections. The Helpers were among those who were afflicted by this policy.
They were deprived of Hunain gifts though they had been the ones who were
summoned at Hunain hard times and they were the first to rush to fight
with the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) and standfast till the
defeat turned into victory. Now here they are watching those who escaped
fill their hands with booty while they are given nothing.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq: “When the Messenger of Allâh
(peace be upon him) had given Quraish and Arab tribes those gifts and
allotted nothing to the Helpers, a group of the Helpers felt so uneasy
about it that a lot of ill-statements against the Prophet (peace be upon
him) were spread among them to an extent that one of them said: “By Allâh,
the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) was ill-spoken of by his folksmen!”
And those ill-statements went on spreading till Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah met the
Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) , who in his turn faced his people
after a while.
Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah said: “O Messenger of Allâh, this group
of the Helpers are furious at you about the distribution of the booty
that you had won. You have allotted shares to your own kinsmen and forwarded
lots of gifts to the Arab tribes. But this group has obtained nothing.”
The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked Sa‘d exclaiming: “Sa‘d, what do
you think of all that?” Sa‘d replied: “O Messenger of Allâh. You know
that I am nothing but a member of this group.” “Call out on your people
and bring them forth to me into this shed.” Said the Prophet (peace be
So Sa‘d went out and summoned them. When some Emigrants
came, he let them in but forbade others. When they were all gathered together,
he informed the Prophet saying: “This group of the Helpers have just arrived
to meet you in compliance with your orders.” As soon as the Messenger
(peace be upon him) faced them he thanked Allâh and praised Him, then
said to them inquiring, “I have been told that you are angry with me.
Didn’t I come to you when you were astray and Allâh guided you? You were
poor and Allâh gave you wealth. Weren’t you foes and Allâh made you love
one another.” “Yes,” they said, “Allâh and His Messenger are better and
more gracious.” Then he said: “What prevents you from replying to the
Messenger of Allâh, O tribe of Helpers?” They said, “What should be the
reply, O Messenger of Allâh, while to the Lord and to his Messenger belong
all benevolence and grace.”
The Prophet (peace be upon him) again said:
“But by Allâh, you might have answered and answered
truly, for I would have testified to its truth myself: ‘You came
to us belied and rejected and we accepted you; you came to us as
helpless and we helped you; a fugitive, and we took you in; poor
and we comforted you’.
You Helpers, do you feel anxious for the things of this
world, wherewith I have sought to incline these people unto the
Faith in which you are already established?
Are you not satisfied, O group of Helpers that the
people go with ewes and camels while you go along with the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) to your dwellings. By Him in Whose
Hand is my life, had there been no migration, I would have been
one of the Helpers. If the people would go through a valley and
passage, and the Helpers go through another valley and passage,
I would go through the valley and passage of the Helpers. Allâh!
Have mercy on the Helpers, their children and their children’s
The audience wept until tears rolled down their beards as
“Yes, we are satisfied, O Prophet of Allâh (peace
be upon him) ! with our lot and share.”
Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) left the gathering
and the people also dispersed.
Hawazin’s delegation arrived a Muslims just after the distribution
of spoils. They were fourteen men headed by Zuhair bin Sard. The Messenger’s
fosteruncle was one of them. They asked him to bestow upon them some of
the wealth and spoils. They uttered so touching words that the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) said to them: “You surely see who are with
me. The most desirable speech to me is the most truthful. Which is dearer
to you, your wealth or your women and children?” They replied: “Nothing
whatsoever compares with kinship.” Then when I perform the noon prayer,
stand up and say: “We intercede with the Messenger of Allâh (peace be
upon him) to exhort the believers, and we intercede with the believers
to exhort the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) to forego the captives
of our people fallen to their lot.” So when the Messenger of Allâh (peace
be upon him) performed the noon prayer, they stood up and said what they
had been told to say. The Messenger (peace be upon him) , then, said:
“As for what belongs to me and to the children of Abdul Muttalib, you
may consider them, from now on, yours. And I will ask my folksmen to give
back theirs.” Upon hearing that the Emigrants and the Helpers said: “What
belongs to us is, from now on, offered to the Messenger of Allâh (peace
be upon him) .” But Al-Aqra‘ bin Habis said, “We will grant none of what
belongs to me and to Bani Tamim,”; so did ‘Uyaina bin Hisn, who said:
“As for me and Bani Fazarah, I say ‘No’.” Al-‘Abbas bin Mirdas also refused
and said: “No” for Bani Saleem and him. His people, however, said otherwise:
“Whatever spoils belong to us we offer to the Messenger of Allâh (peace
be upon him) ” “You have undermined my position.” Said Al-‘Abbas bin Mirdas
spontaneously. Then the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) said: “These
people have come to you as Muslims. For this I have already tarried the
distribution of the booty. Besides, I have granted them a fair option
but they refused to have anything other than their women and children.
Therefore he who has some of theirs and will prefer willingly to give
them back, let them do. But those who favours to keep what he owns to
himself, let them grant them back too, and he will be given as a recompense
six times as much from the first booty that Allâh may provide us.” People
then said, “We will willingly offer them all for the sake of the Messenger
of Allâh.” The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) said: “But in this
way we are not able to find out who is content and who is not. So go back
and we will be waiting for your chiefs to convey to us your decisions.”
All of them gave back the women and children. The only one who refused
to comply with the Messenger’s desire was ‘Uyaina bin Hisn. He refused
to let an old woman of theirs go back at first. Later on he let her go
back. The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) gave every captive a
garment as a gift.
Having accomplished the distribution of the spoils at Al-Ji‘ranah
he left it while wearing Al-‘Umrah clothes and proceeded to Makkah
to perform Al-‘Umrah. The Messenger of Allâh Őáě Çááĺ Úáíĺ ćÓáă
turned back from there to Madinah after appointing ‘Itab bin Usaid on
Makkah as governor. His arrival to Madinah was by the last six nights
of Dhul-Qa‘dah, in the year 8 A.H. On this occasion Muhammad Al-Ghazali
“What a great change it is between the victorious period
of Muhammad at present which Allâh has towered with a manifest conquest,
and that period of the past during which Muhammad first arrived at this
town, eight years ago.”
When he first came to Madinah, he was pursued and wanted.
He was seeking a secure shelter. He was a lonely stranger who sought companionship
and comfort. The people of Madinah welcomed him, gave him residence and
aided him and embraced the light of Islam, which had been sent down upon
him. They, for his sake, did not care about the enmity of other peoples.
Here he is entering Madinah again, after the lapse of eight years of that
first visit. Madinah, the town that had received him once, when he was
a frightened Emigrant; it receives him once again when Makkah has become
in his hands and at his disposal. It is Makkah that has got rid of its
pride and Jahiliyah (i.e. pre-Islamic period and traditions). It
is now proud again and mighty in Islam. The Messenger of Allâh forgave
all the errors and wrongs of its people.
“Verily, he who fears Allâh with obedience to Him
(by abstaining from sins and evil deeds, and by performing righteous
good deeds), and is patient, then surely, Allâh makes not the reward
of the good-doers to be lost.” [12:90]
Upon returning from this long successful travel, the Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) stayed in Madinah where he received delegates
and dispatched agents and appointed preachers and callers to Islam everywhere.
Those whose hearts were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore
were too proud to embrace Allâh’s religion, were decisively muffled on
their non-acquiescence in the status quo prevalent then in Arabia.
Here is a mini-image about the believed ones. We have already
stated that the Messenger’s arrival in Madinah was by the last days of
the eighth year of Al-Hijra. No sooner the crescent of Muharram of the
ninth year turned up than the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) dispatched
the believed ones, to the tribes as shown in the list below:
1. ‘Uyaina bin Hisn to Bani Tamim.
2. Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar.
3. ‘Abbad bin Bishr Al-Ashhali to Sulaim
4. Rafi‘ bin Mukaith to Juhainah.
5. ‘Amr bin Al-‘As to Bani Fazarah.
6. Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan to Bani Kilab.
7. Basheer bin Sufyan to Bani Ka‘b.
8. Ibn Al-Lutabiyah Al-Azdi to Bani
9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi Omaiyah to Sana‘a’
(Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi called at him when he was in it).
10. Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout.
11. ‘Adi bin Hatim to Tai’ and Bani
12. Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah.
13. Az-Zabraqan bin Badr to Bani Sa‘d
(a portion of them).
14. Qais bin ‘Asim to Bani Sa‘d (a
portion of them).
15. Al-‘Alâ’ bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain.
16. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib to Najran (to
collect Sadaqa & Jizya).
Some of these agents were despatched in Muharram, 7 A.H.,
others were sent later until the tribes they were heading for had completely
converted into Islam. Such a move clearly demonstrates the great success
that the Islamic Da‘wah (Call) enjoyed after Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty.
However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to embrace
Islam in large hosts.
In the same way that the believed ones were dispatched to
the tribes, we understand that dispatching some more platoons to all regions
of Arabia is a necessity for the prevalence and domination of security
on all lands of Arabia.
Here is a list of those platoons:
At dawn they raided Mahallat Hatim, demolished
the idol and filled their hands with spoils, camels and sheep booties,
whereas ‘Adi fled to Ash-Sham. The sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim was one
of the captives. Inside Al-Qullus safe, Muslims found three swords and
three armours. On the way they distributed the spoils and put aside
the best things to the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) . They
did not share the Hatims.
- ‘Uyaina bin Hisn Al-Fazari’s platoon in Al-Muharram,
the ninth year of Al-Hijra to Bani Tamim. It consisted of fifty horsemen,
none of them was an Emigrant or a Helper.
- This expedition was dispatched due to the fact that Bani
Tamim had already urged other tribes not to pay tribute (Al-Jizya)
and eventually stopped them from paying it.
Therefore, ‘Uyaina bin Hisn set out to fight them. All
the way long he marched by night and lurked by day. He went on that
way till he overtook them and attacked them in the desert. They fled
back for their lives. Eleven men, twenty-one women and thirty boys
were captured then. He drove them back to Madinah and were housed
in Ramlah bint Al-Harith’s residence. Ten of their leaders, who came
to the Prophet’s door, called out unto him saying: “O Muhammad come
out and face us.” When he went out they held him and started talking.
He exchanged talk with them for a while then left them
and went to perform the noon-prayer. After prayer he sat in the mosque-patio.
They proclaimed a desire to show boasting and self-pride. For this
purpose they introduced their orator ‘Utarid bin Hajib who delivered
his speech. The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) asked Thabit
bin Qais bin Shammas — the Muslim orator — to respond. He did that.
In return, they brought forth their poet Az-Zabraqan bin Badr who
recited some boastful poetry. Hassan bin Thabit, the poet of Islam,
promptly replied back. When talks and poetcame to an end, Al-Aqra‘
bin Habis said: “Their orator is more eloquent than ours, and their
poet is more poetically learned than ours. Their voices and sayings
excel ours, as well.” Eventually they announced their embracing Islam.
Consequently, the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) acknowledged
their Islamization, awarded them well, and rendered them back their
women and children.
- A platoon headed by Qutbah bin ‘Amir to a spot called
Khath‘am in Tabalah, a plot of land not far from Turbah. That was in
Safar, 9 A.H. Accompanied by twenty men and only ten camels to mount
alternatively on, Qutbah raided them and fought so fiercely that a great
number of both parties were wounded and some others were killed. The
Muslims drove back with them camels, women and sheep to Madinah.
- The mission of Dahhak bin Sufyan Al-Kilabi to Bani Kilab
in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. This mission was sent to Bani Kilab
to call them to embrace Islam. Refusing to embrace Islam, they started
to fight against the Muslims, but were defeated and sustained one man
- The three hundred men expedition of ‘Alqamah bin Mujazziz
Al-Mudlaji to Jeddah shores in Rabi‘ Al-Akhir. This expedition was dispatched
to fight against some men from (Al-Habasha) Abyssinia (Ethiopia), who
gathered together near the shores of Jeddah and exercised acts of piracy
against the Makkans. Therefore he crossed the sea till he got to an
island. But as soon as the pirates had learned of Muslims’ arrival,
- The task of the platoon of ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was to
demolish Al-Qullus, which was an idol that belonged to Tai’ tribe. That
was in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. ‘Ali was dispatched by the
Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) with one hundred fifty men. A
hundred of them were on camels. The other fifty were on horseback. He
held a black flag and a white banner.
Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim begged
the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) to have mercy on her and
said: “O Messenger of Allâh, my brother is absent and father is dead,
and I am too old to render any service. Be beneficent to me so that
Allâh may be bountiful to you.” He said: “Who is your brother?” She
said: “It is ‘Adi bin Hatim.” “Is he not the one who fled from Allâh
and his Messenger?” Said the Prophet (peace be upon him) then went
away from her. Next day she reiterated the same thing as the day before
and received the same answer. A day later she uttered similar words,
this time he made benefaction to her. The man who was beside the Prophet,
and whom she thought to be ‘Ali, said to her: “Ask for an animal from
him to ride on.” And she was granted her request.
She returned to Ash-Sham where she met her brother and
said to him: “The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) has done
me such noble deed that your father would never have done it. Therefore,
willy-nilly, frightened or secure, you should go and see him.” Unsecure
neither protected by some one, not even recommended by a letter as
a means of protection, ‘Adi came and met the Prophet. The Messenger
of Allâh (peace be upon him) took him home with him. As soon as he
sat before him, the Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) thanked
Allâh and praised him, then said: “What makes you flee? Do you flee
lest you should say there is no god but Allâh? Do you know any other
god but Allâh?” “No” he said, then talked for a while. The Messenger
of Allâh went on saying: “Certainly you flee so that you may not hear
the statement saying ‘Allâh is the Greatest.’ Do you know anyone who
is greater than Allâh?” “No” he said. “The Jews are those whose portion
is wrath, and the Christians are those who have gone astray,” the
Prophet retorted. “I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (Allâh).”
‘Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face. The Prophet ordered him
a residence with one of the Helpers. From that time he started calling
at the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the mornings and in the evenings.
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, when the Prophet (peace
be upon him) made him sit down in front of him in his house, the Prophet
said, “O ‘Adi, were you not cast in disbelief?” “Yes”. ‘Adi said.
“Did you not share one quarter of your people’s gains?” “Yes”. Said
‘Adi. The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) said: “It is sinful
in your religion to do such a thing, and you should not allow yourself
to do it.” “Yes, by Allâh, that is true”, said ‘Adi. “Thus I worked
out that he was a Prophet inspired by Allâh, and sent to people. He
knows what is unknown.”
In another version, the Prophet (peace be upon him)
said: “‘Adi, embrace Islam and you shall be secure.” “But I am a man
of religion.” Said ‘Adi. “I know your religion better than you.” Said
the Prophet. “Do you know my religion better than me?” ‘Adi asked.
The Prophet replied, “Yes”. He said: “Are you not cast in disbelief
because you appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people’s gains?”
“Yes”. Said ‘Adi. “It is unlawful in your religion to do such a thing.”
The Prophet said, and ‘‘Adi added: “He did not need to say it again
for I immediately acquiesced it.”
Al-Bukhari narrates that ‘Adi said: While we were with
the Prophet (peace be upon him) , a man came in and complained to
him about poverty. Then another man came in and complained about highway
robbery. The Messenger of Allâh (peace be upon him) then said: “O
‘Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you were doomed to live long
life, you would be able to see a riding camel woman travel from Hirah
till it circumambulates Al-Ka‘bah fearing none but Allâh; and if you
were to live long enough you would open the treasures of Kisra. And
if you were to live long you would be able to see man offering a handful
of gold or silver to others but none accepts to take it.” At the end
of this Hadith ‘Adi later on says: “I have seen a riding camel
woman travel from Al-Hirah till it circumambulates the Ka‘bah fearing
none but Allâh, I have also been one of those who opened the treasures
of Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life you would witness
what the Prophet, Abul Qasim, (peace be upon him) had already said
about ‘offering a handful of …’ i.e. the Prophet’s prophecies did
really come true.”