SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS THAT FEATURED THAT YEAR
DURING THIS YEAR MANY EVENTS OF GREAT SIGNIFICANCE TOOK PLACE THEY WERE:
- After the Messenger’s return from Tabuk, the sworn allegation of infidelity
between ‘Uwaimir Al-‘Ajlani and his wife took place.
- Pelting with stones the Ghamidiyah woman who confessed committing
adultery. She was pelted with stones only after weaning her child off
her breast milk.
- Negus Ashama; the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), died so the Prophet
(Peace be upon him) performed prayer in absentia for him.
- The death of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of the Prophet (Peace be upon
him), the Prophet felt extremely sad at her death. “Had I got a third
daughter, I would let you marry her.” He said to ‘Uthman.
- The death of ‘Abdullah bin Abi Salool, the head of hypocrites, after
the Prophet’s return from Tabuk. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon
him) asked Allâh’s forgiveness for him. He also prayed for him in spite
of ‘Umar’s disapproval and his attempt to prevent him from doing that.
Later on a Qur’ânic verse was revealed attesting to ‘Umar’s right viewpoint.
In the month Dhul-Qa‘dah or in Dhul-Hijjah of the very year
(the ninth of Al-Hijra), the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) dispatched
Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him), the truthful, as a deputy prince
of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage), so that he would lead the Muslims in performing
of the pilgrimage rituals.
Soon after the departure of the Muslims, there came a Revelation
from Allâh: the opening passages of the Chapter 9 entitled ‘Repentance’
(Surah Tauba or Bara’a) in which ‘freedom from obligation’
is proclaimed from Allâh in regard to those idolatrous tribes who had
shown no respect for the treaties which they had entered into with the
Prophet (Peace be upon him). Communication of this news went in line with
the Arabian traditions of making public any change relating to declining
conventions of blood and fortunes.
‘Ali bin Abi Talib was deputed to make this declaration.
He overtook Abu Bakr at Al-‘Arj or Dajnan. Abu Bakr inquired whether the
Prophet (Peace be upon him) had put him in command or he had just been
commissioned to make the announcement. “I have been deputed to make the
proclamation only” replied ‘Ali. The two Companions then proceeded with
the pilgrimage process. Towards the close of the rituals, on the day of
the ritual sacrifice, ‘Ali stood at Al-Jamrah (a spot at which
stones are pelted) and read aloud to the multitudes that thronged around
him and declared quittance from covenants with idolaters and giving them
four months’ respite to reconsider their position. As for the other idolaters
with whom the believers had a treaty and had abated nothing of the Muslims’
rights nor had supported anyone against them, then the terms of the treaty
would run valid until the duration of which expired.
Abu Bakr then sent some Muslims to declare publicly that
no disbeliever would after that year perform pilgrimage, nor would anyone
be allowed to make the Tawaf (going round) of the Sacred House
That proclamation in fact vetoed all aspects of paganism
out of Arabia and stated quite unequivocally that those pre-Islam practices
were no longer in operation.
Meditation on the Prophet’s Ghazawat, missions, and the battalions
he formed and dispatched, will certainly give us and everybody a true
and clear impression that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) was the greatest
military leader in the whole world as well as the most righteous, the
most insightful and the most alert one. He was not a man of superior genius
for this concern but he was also the Master and the greatest of all Messengers
as far as Prophethood and Heavenly Message are concerned. Besides, all
the battles that he had fought were standard in their application to the
requirements of strictness, bravery, and good arrangements that fitted
the terms and conditions of war. None of the battles he fought was lost
as a consequence of shortage of wisdom or due to any other technical error
in army mobilization or a location in a wrong strategical position. The
loss of any of his battle was not due to misjudgement about occupying
the best and the most appropriate sites of battles, nor was it due to
a mischoice of leaders of the fight, for he had proved himself to be a
peculiar sort of leader that differs from any of those leaders that our
world had known and experienced. As regards Uhud and Hunain events, there
were consequences of weakness in some military elements in Hunain; and
disobedience to orders in Uhud. Their non-compliance with wisdom and the
plan of the battle played a passive role in the course of those two invasions.
His genius was clearly shown in these two battles when the
Muslims were defeated; for he stoodfast facing the enemy and managed,
by his super wisdom, to thwart the enemy’s aim as was the case in Uhud.
Similarly he managed to change the Muslims’ defeat in Hunain into a victory.
Nothwithstanding the fact that serious grave developments in military
operations usually leave the worst impression on the military leaders
and entice them to flee for their lives.
We have, so far, discussed the mere aspects of military leadership
of the invasions. On the other hand, through these invasions he was able
to impose security, institute peace, diffuse dissension and destroy the
military might of the enemies through relentless struggle between Islam
The Prophet had also profound insight and could differentiate
the faithful from the hypocrites and plotters.
Great was the group of military leaders who fought and excelled
the Persians and the Byzantines in the battlefields of Ash-Sham and Iraq
with respect to war strategy and leading the fight procedures. The very
leaders, who succeeded Muhammad (Peace be upon him) , managed to drive
off the enemies of Islam, from their lands and countries, their gardens
and springs, and their farms. They drove them off their honourable residence
and from the grace and provisions they owned and enjoyed. Those Muslim
leaders were all Muhammad’s men. They were imbued with the spirit of Islam
at the hand of the Prophet (Peace be upon him).
Thanks to these battles, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be
upon him) managed accommodation, secured land and provided chances of
work for all Muslims. He, even, made a lot of inquiries about the refugee
problems who (then) had no houses or fortunes. He equipped the army with
weapons, horses and expenditures. He had all that realized without exercising
a particle weight of injustice. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) has altered
the standards and aims of pre-Islamic wars. Their war was no more than
robbing, killing, plundering, tyranny and aggression-oriented wars. Those
wars focused on winning victory, oppressing the weakling and demolishing
their houses and constructions. For them, war was a means by which they
can rape or unveil women, practise cruelty against the weakling, the babies
and small children, spoil tillage and race, and spread corruption on the
earth. Islamic wars are different from pre-Islamic wars. A “war” in Islam
is a Jihad. That is to say it is a noble sacred fight in the way
of Allâh for the verification of a Muslim society that seeks to free man
from oppression, tyranny and aggression. It is a society that everyone
everywhere and at all times should be proud of.Pre-Islamic thoughts and
traditions of Al-Jahiliyah period have been turned upside down
by Islam. These were so hard upon the weakling that they had to invoke
Allâh to enable them to get away from that pre-Islamic environment by
“Our Lord, rescue us from this town whose people are
oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and
raise for us from You one who will help.”
The war of corruption, slaying and robbing that used to prevail
has now turned into a sacred one, Al-Jihad. One of the greatest
aims of Al-Jihad is to free man from the aggression, the oppression
and the tyranny of men of power. A man of power, in Islam, is a weakling
till after the right of the poor is taken from him. War, in Islam, is
a Jihad for the purification of the land of Allâh from dece, treachery,
sinful deeds and aggression. It is a sacred war that aims at spreading
security, safety, mercy and compassion as well as observing the rights
and magnanimity. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) had issued
honourable strict rules about war and bade his soldiers and leaders to
comply with them. They were forbidden to break those rules under any circumstances.
In reference to Sulaiman bin Buraidah’s version, who said that his father
had told him that whenever the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him)
appointed a leader on an army or on a battalion, he used to recommend
him to fear Allâh, the Great and All-Mighty, when dealing with those who
were closest to him and to be good with all Muslims. Then the Prophet
(Peace be upon him) would say to him:
“Let your invasion be in the Name of Allâh and for
His sake. Fight those who disbelieve in Allâh. Invade but do not
exaggerate nor commit treachery. Never deform the corpse of a dead
person or kill an infant child.”
The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) asked people to
facilitate but he forbade them to bear down hard on others or constrain.
“Pacify”, he said, “and do not disincline”. When it happened that he arrived
at the battlefield by night, he would never invade the enemy till it was
morning. He utterly forbade burning (i.e. torturing people) in fire, killing
children and women or even beating them. He also forbade theft and robbery
and proceeded so far as to say gains acquired through plundering are not
less forbidden than the flesh of a corpse. Corruption of tillage and race
and cutting down of trees were all forbidden unless they were badly needed
and there was no other substitute:
“Do not kill a wounded person nor run after a fleeing
one or kill a captive.”
He decreed that envoys cannot be killed. He also stressed
on not killing those who made covenants. He even said:
“He whoever kills one who is under pledge to a covenant
shall not smell Paradise, though its smell could be experienced
at a forty-year distance from it.”
There were some other noble rules which purified wars from
their Al-Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic) filthiness and turned them into