THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE:
After the accomplishment of the Call, the proclamation of the Message
and the establishment of a new society on the basis of ‘There is no god
but Allâh,’ and on Muhammad’s mission, a secret call uprose in the heart
of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) telling him that his stay
in the Lower World was about to terminate. That was clear in his talk
to Mu‘adh whom he had dispatched to Yemen in the tenth year of Al-Hijra:
“O, Mu‘adh! You may not see me after this current year. You may even pass
by this very Mosque of mine and my tomb.” Upon hearing that Mu‘adh cried
for fear that he would part with the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon
Allâh’s care was so bounteous as to let the Prophet (Peace be upon him)
see the fruits of his Call for the sake of which he suffered various sorts
of trouble for over twenty years. Those twenty years had elapsed actively.
He used to spend his last days meeting, at the outskirts of Makkah, members
of tribes and their representatives who used to consult him and learn
the laws and legislation of Islam from him, and in return he used to exact
their testimony that he had delivered trust and communicated the Message
and counselled the people.
The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) announced an intention to
proceed with this blessed pilgrimage journey himself. Enormous crowds
of people came to Madinah, all of whom seek the guidance and Imamate
of the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) in the pilgrimage (Al-Hajj).
On a Saturday of the last four days of Dhul-Qa‘dah, the Prophet (Peace
be upon him) started the departure preparations procedure. He combed his
hair, applied some perfume, wore his garment, saddled his camel and set
off in the afternoon. He arrived at Dhul-Hulaifa before the afternoon
prayer. He performed two Rak‘a and spent the night there. When
it was morning he said to his Companions:
“A comer, sent by my Lord, has called on me tonight and said:
‘Pray in this blessed valley and say: I intend ‘Umrah combined
with pilgrimage (‘Umrah into Al-Hajj).
Before performing the noon prayer, he bathed for Ihram (ritual
consecration), and ‘Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) perfumed him
on both his body and head with her hand with a Dharira (a plant)
and with a perfume containing musk. The thick sticky layer of perfume
could be seen among his parts of hair and beard. He left it unwashed,
wore his loincloth and garment. He performed the noon prayer shortened,
two Rak‘a. He proclaimed pilgrimage procedure associated with ‘Umrah
at his prayer-place. He, then mounted his she-camel ‘Al-Qaswa’, and proclaimed:
‘There is no god but Allâh’. When he moved into the desert, he acclaimed
the Name of Allâh.
He proceeded with his journey till he approached Makkah. He spent the
night at Dhi Tuwa and entered Makkah after performing the dawn prayer.
He had a bath on Sunday morning, the fourth of Dhul-Hijjah the tenth year
of Al-Hijra. He spent eight days on the way, which was an average period.
As soon as he entered Al-Haram Mosque he circumambulated Al-Ka‘bah and
walked to and fro (Sa‘i) between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. He did
not finish the Ihram (ritual consecration) because he was Qarin
(i.e. intending ‘Umrah and Al-Hajj associated). He then
took Al-Hadi (i.e. the sacrificial animals) in order to slaughter
them. He camped on a high place of Makkah — Al-Hajun. As for circumambulation,
he performed only that of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage circumambulation).
Those of his Companions who had no Hadi with them to sacrifice,
were ordered to observe Ihram (i.e. the state of ritual consecration)
into ‘Umrah (i.e. lesser pilgrimage), and circumambulate Al-Ka‘bah
and stride ritually to and fro between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. After that
they could relieve themselves from Ihram. They, however, showed
reluctance to do what they had been told. Thereupon, the Messenger of
Allâh (Peace be upon him) said: ”Had I known beforehand what I knew afterward,
I would not bring Hadi, and if I did not have Hadi, I would
break Ihram. On hearing these words, his Companions obeyed the
orders to the latter.
On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah — that is the Day of Tarwiyah,
he left for Mina where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset,
the evening and the dawn prayers. — i.e. five prayers. Then he stayed
for a while till the sun rose up then he passed along till he reached
‘Arafah, where there was a tent built for him at Namirah. He sat inside
till the sun went down. He ordered that Al-Qaswa’, his she-camel, should
be prepared for him. They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down
the valley where a hundred thousand and twenty-four or forty-four thousand
people gathered round him. There he stood up and delivered the following
“ O people! Listen to what I say. I do not know whether I will
ever meet you at this place once again after this current year.
It is unlawful for you to shed the blood of one another or take
(unlawfully) the fortunes of one another. They are as unlawful,
(Haram) as shedding blood on such a day as today and in such
a month as this Haram month and in such a sanctified city
as this sacred city (i.e. Makkah and the surrounding areas).”
“Behold! all practices of paganism and ignorance are now under
my feet. The blood-revenge of the Days of Ignorance (pre-Islamic
time) are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that
of Ibn Rabi‘a bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sa‘d and
whom Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, and I make a beginning
by remitting the amount of interest which ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib
has to receive. Verily, it is remitted entirely.”
“O people! Fear Allâh concerning women. Verily you have taken
them on the security of Allâh and have made their persons lawful
unto you by Words of Allâh! It is incumbent upon them to honour
their conjugal rights and, not to commit acts of impropriety which,
if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely.
If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you,
clothe and feed them suitably.”
“Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allâh and the Sunnah
(Traditions) of His Messenger which if you hold fast, you
shall never go astray.”
“O people, I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded
by any nation. So I recommend you to worship your Lord, to pray
the five prayers, to fast Ramadan and to offer the Zakat
(poor-due) of your provision willingly. I recommend you to do
the pilgrimage to the Sacred House of your Lord and to obey those
who are in charge of you then you will be awarded to enter the
Paradise of your Lord.”
“And if you were asked about me, what wanted you
“We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged
He then raised his forefskywards and then moved it down towards people
“O Allâh, Bear witness.”
He said that phrase thrice.
The one who repeated the Prophet’s (Peace be upon him)statements loudly
at ‘Arafat was Rabi‘a bin Omaiyah bin Khalaf.
As soon as the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had accomplished delivering
the speech, the following Qur’ânic verse was revealed to him:
“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My
Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.”
Upon hearing this verse ‘Umar cried. “What makes you cry?” He was asked.
His answer was: “Nothing succeeds perfection but imperfection.”
Bilal called for prayer after the speech, and then made the second call.
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) performed both of the noon and the afternoon
prayers separately, with no prayers in between. He then mounted his she-camel
Al-Qaswa’, approached the location of the vigil, directed his face towards
Al-Qiblah, kept on standing till sunset when the sky yellow colour
vanished a bit and the disc of the sun disappeared. Osamah added that
the Prophet (Peace be upon him) moved onward to Muzdalifa. where he observed
the sunset and the evening prayers with one ‘First call’ and two ‘second
calls’. He did not entertain the Glory of Allâh between the two prayers.
Then he lay down till it was dawn prayer time. He performed it with one
first call and one second call at almost daybreak time. Mounting on his
Al-Qaswa’, he moved towards Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haram. He faced Al-Qiblah
and started supplicating: “Allâh is the Greatest. There is no god but
Allâh.” He remained there till it was clear morning and before the sun
rose high, he made his way to Mina. He walked a little and threaded the
mid-road leading to the big Jamrah where he stopped and pelted
seven pebbles at it saying “Allâh is the Greatest” each time. They were
like small pebbles hurled from the bottom of the valley. Then he set off
to the sacrificial place, where he sacrificed sixty-three camels with
his hands, and asked ‘Ali to slaughter the others, a hundred and thirty-seven
altogether. He made ‘Ali share him in Al-Hadi. A piece of meat
from each slaughtered animal was ordered to be cooked in a pot and from
which both men ate, and drank the soup.
Then the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) mounted his she-camel
and returned to the House where he observed the noon prayer at Makkah
and there he came upon the children of ‘Abdul Muttalib were supplying
drinking water to people at Zamzam Well. “Draw up water, children of ‘Abdul
Muttalib, I would draw up with you if I were not afraid that people would
appropriate this honour after me.” They handed him a pail of water and
he drank to his fill.
At the daytime of the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah on the Slaughtering Day (Yaum
An-Nahr) The Prophet (Peace be upon him) delivered another speech.
That was at high time morning, while he was mounting a grey mule. ‘Ali
conveyed his statements to the people, who were standing or sitting.
He repeated some of the statements that he had previously said the day
before. The two Sheikh (Bukhâri and Muslim) reported a version narrated
by Abi Bakrah who said:
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) made a speech on Yaum An-Nahr (day
of slaughtering) and said:
“Time has grown similar in form and state to the time when Allâh
created the heavens and the earth. A year is twelve months. Four
of which are Sacred Months (Hurum). Three of the four months
are successive. They are Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Al-Muharram.
The fourth Month is Rajab Mudar, which comes between Jumada and
“What month is this month?” He asked. We said: “Allâh and His
Messenger know best of all.” He kept silent for a while till we
thought he would attach to it a different appellation. “Is it
not Dhul-Hijjah?” He wondered. “Yes. It is.” We said. Then he
asked, “What is this town called?” We said: “Allâh and His Messenger
know best of all.” He was silent for a while till we thought he
would give it a different name. “Is it not Al-Baldah? (i.e.
the town)” asked he. “Yes. It is.” We replied. Then he asked again,
“What day is it today?” We replied: “Allâh and His Messenger know
best of all.” Then he kept silent for a while and said wondering:
“Is it not ‘An-Nahr’ (i.e. slaughtering) Day?” “Yes. It
is.” Said we. Then he said:
“(Shedding) the blood of one another and eating or taking one
another’s provisions (unwillingly) and your honour are all inviolable
(Haram). It is unlawful to violate their holiness. They
must be as sacred to one another as this sacred day, in this sacred
month, in this sacred town.”
“You will go back to be resurrected (after death) to your Lord.
There you will be accounted for your deeds. So do not turn into
people who go astray and kill one another.”
“Have I not delivered the Message (of my Lord)?” “Yes you have.”
Said they. “O Allâh! Bear witness! Let him that is present convey
it unto him who is absent. For haply, many people to whom the
Message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience,.”
In another version it is said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had
said in that very speech:
“He whoever plunges into misfortune will certainly aggrieve himself.
So let no one of you inflict an evil upon his parents. Verily Satan
has utterly despaired being worshipped in this country of yours;
but he will be obeyed at your committing trivial things you disdain.
Satan will be contented with such things.”
The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) spent At-Tashreeq Days
(11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah) in Mina performing the ritual teachings
of Islam, remembering Allâh (praying), following the ways of guidance
of Ibrahim, wiping out all traces and features or polytheism. On some
days of At-Tashreeq he delivered some speeches as well. In a version
to Abu Da’űd with good reference to Sira,’ the daughter of Nabhan; she
said: “The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) made us a speech at
the Ru’us (Heads) Day in which he said: “Is it not this the middle
day of At-Tashreeq Days.”
His speech that day was similar to that of An-Nahr Day’s. It was
made after the revelation of Surat An-Nasr.
On the second day of An-Nafr (i.e. Departure) — on the thirteenth
of Dhul-Hijjah, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) proceeded with An-Nafr
to Mina and stayed at a high place of a mountain side at Bani Kinanah
from Al-Abtah. He spent the rest of that day and night there — where he
performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset and the evening prayers.
Then he slept for a short while and mounted leaving for the Ka‘bah. He
performed the Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada‘), after
ordering his Companions to do the same thing.
Upon the accomplishment of his religious rituals he quickened his move
to the purified Madinah. He went there not to seek rest but to resume
the strife and struggle in the way of Allâh.
The pride of the Byzantine State made it deny Muslims their right to
live. The Byzantine arrogance made them even kill those agents of theirs,
who embraced Islam. Killing Farwah bin ‘Amr Al-Judhami, who was their
agent on Mu’an, was an evidence of their arrogance. Due to that arrogance
and presumptuousness of the Byzantines, the Messenger of Allâh (Peace
be upon him) started to mobilize a great army in Safar in the eleventh
year of Al-Hijra and made it under the command of Osamah bin Zaid bin
Haritha with orders to have the horses of Muslims tread on the lands bordering
Al-Balqa’ and Ad-Darum of Palestine. His aim was to terrorize Byzantines
and to implant confidence into the hearts of Arabs who were settled at
the borders of the Byzantines. His other purpose was to deliver a message
to everybody there, so that no one may dare say that the Church brutality
can’t go with impunity; and that Islamization is not synonymous with fear
The leadership of Osamah was subject to criticism. Because he was still
too young, people tarried at joining his expedition. The Messenger of
Allâh (Peace be upon him) addressed people saying:
“No wonder now you contest his leadership, for you have already
contested the ex-leadership ofhis father. Yes, by Allâh, his father,
who was one of the most beloved people to me, was quite efficient
for leadership; and this son of his is one of the most beloved individuals
to me after his father.”
So people started tending towards Osamah and joined his army. The number
of volunteers in his army was so enormous that they formed such a long
queue that they had to descend the escarpment — which was a parasang off
Madinah. The anxiety-provoking news about the Messenger of Allâh’s sickness,
however, made the expedition tarry again in order to know what Allâh had
willed as regards His Messenger (Peace be upon him).
It was Allâh’s Will that Osamah’s expedition would be the first one dispatched
during the caliphate of the veracious Abu Bakr.